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The impact of a collapsing gas bubble above rigid, notched walls is considered. Such surface crevices and imperfections often function as bubble nucleation sites, and thus have a direct relation to cavitation-induced erosion and damage structures. A generic configuration is investigated numerically using a second-order accurate compressible multi-component flow solver in a two-dimensional axisymmetric coordinate system. Results show that the crevice geometry has a significant effect on the collapse dynamics, jet formation, subsequent wave dynamics and interactions. The wall-pressure distribution associated with erosion potential is a direct consequence of development and intensity of these flow phenomena.
As renewable energy supply chains have grown increasingly globalized, national clean energy transitions have become highly influenced by international dynamics. However, these dynamics are themselves collectively shaped by domestic policy that drives the deployment of renewables. While spatial spillovers of domestic renewable energy policies have been studied on an aggregate level regarding policy diffusion or the flows of technology across countries, implications on an actor-level have been largely neglected. This article addresses this gap by analyzing global patterns of market openings for wind, solar PV, and biomass, focusing on the role of private project developers in developing countries. We use a mixed method design, based on a newly merged dataset encompassing eighty countries, and on interviews with pioneering project developers. Results highlight how patterns in market openings are shaped considerably by technology characteristics. Further, empirical results show international private developers are a key first mover in many developing countries. We explore drivers for this internationalization trend, including the impact of international developers' home country policies and the accumulation of tacit knowledge from home country markets for market openings abroad. Finally, we discuss implications for industrial policy and argue for further research on global spillovers of national policies on the actor-level.
Operation of single crystalline Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) and La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS) bulk acoustic wave resonators is demonstrated up to 1270 °C and 1470 °C, respectively. The mass sensitivity of such devices is about 35 cm2 Hz/μg at 800 °C. Therefore, they are sensitive transducers suited to monitoring, for example, mass deposition processes at high temperatures. The electromechanical loss in CTGS is found to be significantly lower than that in LGS. Platinum coated CTGS samples show a remarkable long-term stability at 1000 °C in air. After an initial period of 300 h, the conductivity is found to remain nearly constant for at least 2400 h. Measurements of resonance frequency of CTGS for 1000 h show a qualitatively similar sequence, with an initial systematic increase followed by nearly constant values. In contrast, measurements on platinum-coated LGS plates show a conductivity decreasing by 15 % over a period of 5000 h.
The demanding tasks for automotive radar systems in multitarget scenarios require an increased target separation performance and new sensor concepts. In this contribution, a highly integrated 77 GHz time domain multiplex (TDM) MIMO radar is presented. The sensor is feasible for advanced direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in azimuth and elevation. For efficient and high-quality measurements a fractional-n phased locked loop (PLL) with integrated waveform generator, enabling chirp and frequency modulated continous waveform (FMCW) modulations, is implemented. Spatial beamforming is done with series feed array patch antennas in combination with a dielectric cylindrical lens. For the improvement of the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation performance a new lens-based MIMO radar approach is introduced. Therefore the classical MIMO approach is combined with the advantages of an optical beamforming concept. Due to the usage of these techniques the sensor performance in accuracy, ambiguity suppression, and angular resolution can be significantly increased.
This chapter talks about a 50-year-old man who was referred for dementia evaluation a few months after losing his job as head of a department in a large company. An MRI scan was initially described with white matter lesions in the temporal and parietal lobes, but no focal atrophy. A revised report also described cortical atrophy of the frontal lobes. The diagnosis of the Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) was given based on the dominant clinical symptoms that had developed gradually over a couple of years: apathy, disinhibition, loss of social conduct, impaired empathy, stereotypic behavior, neglect of self-care, altered eating pattern, and impaired insight. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) is used here as the general label for neurodegenerative diseases involving primarily the anterior regions of the brain. The patient presented here is a prototypical example of the behavioral variant of FTLD, exhibiting most of the characteristic features of this clinical subtype.
Ta based films are important building blocks for modern microelectronic applications. To meet the requirements of miniaturization, atomic layer deposition appears to be an alternative technology in comparison to PVD and CVD. In the present paper investigations of a thermal TBTDET ALD process will be presented with emphasis to the first ALD reaction cycles on native silicon oxide and HF etched silicon surfaces. The investigations show that the substrate chemistry is a crucial parameter for the film growth and appears to be a key to control the ALD deposition. The investigations were done by XPS without any vacuum break between the deposition and the surface analysis.
The microstructure and orientation relationships of epitaxial (111)-oriented SrTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on epitaxial (111)-oriented Pt/Ti electrodes on sapphire were investigated using x-ray diffraction, conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that the epitaxial growth of (111)-oriented SrTiO3 films was promoted by thin Ti adhesion layers underneath the Pt electrode. The SrTiO3 films nucleated with two twin-related orientation variants, rotated by 180° about the 〈111〉 surface normal. The twin boundaries were oriented approximately normal to the film plane, but no strong preference for a specific boundary plane was observed. Growth mechanisms and the relationships to the dielectric properties are discussed.
Pale-headed Brush-finch Atlapetes pallidiceps is a restricted-range species that is threatened with extinction due to habitat loss. The total population of 60–80 individuals achieved a reproductive output of only 0.74 young per breeding pair in 2002. Brood parasitism by Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis was a major factor reducing breeding success, affecting 38.5% of broods. Parasitism rates reached 50% in an ungrazed reserve, but only 14% on an adjacent grazed plot. The resulting difference in breeding success was not, however, attributable to vegetation parameters used to describe microhabitat use. Cowbird parasitism rates therefore seem to be influenced largely by factors operating at the landscape level. These may include grazing scheme, topography, humidity and host availability. It is suggested that lower species diversity and bird abundance rendered the grazed site less attractive to cowbirds. Current parasitism rates are of great conservation concern due to the low population size of Pale-headed Brush-finch, and the initiation of controlling measures is pressing. Management options described from intensive cowbird control programmes in North America are reviewed and evaluated for their applicability here. To combine the possibility of further data collection with commencement of immediate conservation action, we consider two alternative approaches. Nest monitoring and cowbird egg removal would enable the study of the distribution of parasitism in relation to landscape and vegetation variables, whereas cowbird shooting and nest monitoring might provide a larger short-term benefit to reproductive output. Habitat management, resumption of some grazing in the reserve and cowbird removal should be considered for the intermediate future.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
[For] women to begin to participate more fully in politics on an equal par with men, the changes that have to take place go far beyond the raising of consciousness of women themselves, as well as of the men. Major changes will also be necessary in the structure of the society, in particular in the relationship between the two institutions—the family and the polity.
In this concluding paragraph of a paper on Brazilian women, Blachman (1972) charts two major areas of significance to those interested in the study of women—the ideological dimension and the institutional reality. At the same time we are reminded that the link between the two, a dialectic of structures and values, may still be the most confounding and frustrating obstacle to an analysis of women in society and, for our interests here, women in politics. (For an excellent overview of the material on women in Latin America, see Pescatello, 1972.)
Lying at the heart of the problem in analyzing Colombian violence is the relative poverty of conceptual frameworks not only for dealing with violence but with the institutions and processes and traditions which form the social environment of the society. In the following pages I shall argue that a dialectic between violence and patron-client relations offers a useful analytical framework. The first part will deal with the historical dynamics of Colombian politics. In part two, patron-client politics will be looked at in a small town setting.
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