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Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. Significant risk factors for CDI include antibiotic use and healthcare exposure. Antibiotics are often administered before, during and/or after surgery to prevent postsurgical infection. The contribution of surgery-related antibiotics to the overall CDI burden has not been well described, and assessment of the appropriateness of surgical antibiotic use is complicated by complex clinical guidelines. We have described surgical antibiotic prophylaxis history among adult with CDI in Minnesota in 2018. Method: The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) performs 5-county active population- and laboratory-based CDI surveillance as a CDC Emerging Infections Program site. Incident CDI was defined as stool positive for C. difficile by toxin or molecular assay from a person aged ≥18 years with no positive test in the preceding 8 weeks. History of CDI was defined as having had a previous CDI episode in the 2009–2018 surveillance data set. Medical records were reviewed for 12 weeks prior to incident CDI test date to identify antibiotic prescriptions. Antibiotics with documented indication for surgical-site infection prevention or surgical prophylaxis were classified as “surgical antibiotic prophylaxis” (SPPX). SPPX type (eg, intraoperative, postoperative), appropriateness of SPPX, and clinical guideline adherence were not assessed. Results: During 2018, 812 incident CDIs were reported to MDH among 736 patients. SPPX preceded 84 (10.3%) cases, non-SPPX antibiotic use preceded 465 cases (57.3%), and 263 cases (32.4%) had no documented prior antibiotic use. The median age of incident CDIs with preceding SPPX was 68 years (IQR, 54–79.5). In 25 incident CDI cases with preceding SPPX (29.8%), there were no other antibiotic exposures. Among incident CDIs with preceding SPPX, 11 (13.1%) had >1 surgery event with SPPX. Prior CDI was identified for 13 (15.7%) with SPPX. Among 99 procedures with preceding SPPX, orthopedic surgeries (n = 27, 27.3%), gastrointestinal surgeries (n = 26, 26.3%), and cardiovascular surgeries (n = 22, 22.2%) were most common. In total 18 SPPX prescriptions (18.2%) originated in outpatient settings. SPPX drugs included cefazolin (n = 67, 67.7%), ceftriaxone (n = 7, 7.1%), ertapenem (n = 6, 6.1%), and clindamycin (n = 6, 6.1%). Median SPPX duration was 1 day (IQR, 1–2), and the median number days between surgery and specimen collection date was 19 (IQR, 7–49). Conclusions: Antibiotic stewardship programs should assess surgical prescribing, including in outpatient centers. Even short antibiotic duration for surgery could put patients at risk for CDI. More data are needed to evaluate the appropriateness of SPPX prescribing and to describe the impact of SPPX on CDI.
Describe a severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hospital outbreak and the role of serial testing of patients and healthcare personnel (HCP) in interrupting SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
Medical floor of a tertiary-care center in Minnesota.
Serial testing for SARS-CoV-2 and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of positive specimens from HCP and patients were used. An outbreak-associated case was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test in an HCP who worked on the floor prior to testing positive or in a patient who was hospitalized on the medical floor bewteen October 27 and December 1, 2020. WGS was used to determine potential routes of transmission.
The outbreak was detected after a patient hospitalized for 12 days tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Serial testing of patients and HCP was conducted in response. Overall, 247 HCP and 41 patients participated in serial SARS-CoV-2 testing; 52 HCP (21%) and 19 hospitalized patients (46%) tested positive. One additional HCP tested positive outside serial testing. The WGS of specimens from 27 (51%) HCP and 15 (79%) patients identified 3 distinct transmission clusters. WGS and epidemiologic evidence suggested intrafacility transmission. The proportions of asymptomatic and presymptomatic patients who tested positive (63%) and HCP who worked during their infectious period (75%) highlight the need for serial testing of asymptomatic patients and HCP during outbreaks.
Coupled with preventive measures such as personal protective equipment use and physical distancing, serial testing of HCP and patients could help detect and prevent transmission within healthcare facilities during outbreaks and when nosocomial transmission is suspected.
Background: The epidemic NAP1/027 Clostridioides difficile strain (MLST1, ST1) that emerged in the mid-2000 is on the decline. The current distribution of C. difficile strain types and their transmission dynamics are poorly defined. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of C. difficile isolates in 2 regions to identify the predominant multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) in community- and healthcare-associated cases and potential transmission between cases using whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Methods: Isolates were collected through the CDC Emerging Infections Program population-based surveillance for C. difficile infections (CDI) for 3 months between 2016 and 2017 in 5 Minnesota counties and 1 New York county. Isolates were limited to incident cases (CDI in a county resident with no positive C. difficile test in the preceding 8 weeks). Cases were classified as healthcare associated (HA-CDI) or community associated (CA-CDI) based on healthcare exposures as previously described. WGS was performed on an Illumina Miseq. The CFSAN (FDA) pipeline was used to compute whole-genome SNPs, SPAdes was used for assembly, and MLST was assigned according to www.pubmlst.org. Results: Of 431 isolates, 269 originated from New York and 162 from Minnesota; 203 cases were classified as CA-CDI and 221 as HA-CDI. The proportion of CA-CDI cases was higher in Minnesota than in New York: 62% vs 38%. The predominant MLSTs across both sites were ST42 (9%), ST8 (8%), and ST2 (8%). MLSTs more frequently encountered in HA-CDI than CA-CDI included ST1 (note that this ST includes PCR Ribotype 027; 76% HA-CDI), ST53 (84% HA-CDI), and ST43 (80% HA-CDI). In contrast, ST110 (63% CA-CDI) and ST3 (67% CA-CDI) were more commonly isolated from CA-CDI cases. ST1 accounted for 7.6% of circulating strains and was more common in New York than Minnesota (10% vs 3%) and was concentrated among New York HA-CDI cases. Also, 412 isolates (1 per patient) were included in the final whole-genome SNP analysis. Of these, only 12 pairs were separated by 0–3 SNPs, indicating potential transmission, and most involved HA-CDI cases. ST1, ST17, and ST46 accounted for 8 of 12 pairs, with ST17 and ST46 potentially forming small clusters. Conclusions: This analysis provides a snapshot of the current genomic epidemiology of C. difficile across 2 geographically and epidemiologically distinct regions of the United States and supports other studies suggesting that the role of direct transmission in the spread of CDI may be limited.
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