To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The distribution of hot Jupiters, for which star-planet interactions can be significant, questions the evolution of exosystems. We aim to follow the orbital evolution of a planet along the rotational and structural evolution of the host star by taking into account the coupled effects of tidal and magnetic torques from ab initio prescriptions. It allows us to better understand the evolution of star-planet systems and to explain some properties of the distribution of observed close-in planets. To this end we use a numerical model of a coplanar circular star-planet system taking into account stellar structural changes, wind braking and star-planet interactions, called ESPEM (Benbakoura et al. (2019)). We find that depending on the initial configuration of the system, magnetic effects can dominate tidal effects during the various phases of the evolution, leading to an important migration of the planet and to significant changes on the rotational evolution of the star. Both kinds of interactions thus have to be taken into account to predict the evolution of compact star-planet systems.
Turbulent transport and mixing generated by hydrodynamic instabilities triggered by rotation gradients are key mechanisms in the evolution of massive stars. We present here a summary of the progresses on shear-induced mixing obtained with numerical simulations, along with a new prescription for horizontal turbulence.
Over the last decade, tremendous strides have been achieved in our understanding of magnetism in main sequence hot stars. In particular, the statistical occurrence of their surface magnetism has been established (~10%) and the field origin is now understood to be fossil. However, fundamental questions remain: how do these fossil fields evolve during the post-main sequence phases, and how do they influence the evolution of hot stars from the main sequence to their ultimate demise? Filling the void of known magnetic evolved hot (OBA) stars, studying the evolution of their fossil magnetic fields along stellar evolution, and understanding the impact of these fields on the angular momentum, rotation, mass loss, and evolution of the star itself, is crucial to answering these questions, with far reaching consequences, in particular for the properties of the precursors of supernovae explosions and stellar remnants. In the framework of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey and LIFE project, we have discovered the first few magnetic hot supergiants. Their longitudinal surface magnetic field is very weak but their configuration resembles those of main sequence hot stars. We present these first observational results and propose to interpret them at first order in the context of magnetic flux conservation as the radius of the star expands with evolution. We then also consider the possible impact of stellar structure changes along evolution.
This paper provides a brief look at dynamo scaling relationships for the degree of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energies. Two simple models are examined, where one that assumes magnetostrophy and another that includes the effects of inertia. These models are then compared to a suite of convective dynamo simulations of the convective core of a main-sequence B-type star and applied to its later evolutionary stages.
We build a 2D model of the radiative envelope of main sequence massive stars. We set a dynamical boundary condition at the bottom of the radiative envelope at η = rC/R (where rC is the core size and R the radius of the star) to account for the differential rotation of the convective core as computed in 3D simulations (e.g. Browning et al. (2004, IAUS, 224, 149). We seek the differential rotation and associated meridional circulation induced by such a shear competing with the baroclinic flow of the stably stratified radiative envelope using the Boussinesq approximation.
Observations of stable mainly dipolar magnetic fields at the surface of ~7% of single hot stars indicate that these fields are of fossil origin, i.e. they descend from the seed field in the molecular clouds from which the stars were formed. The recent results confirm this theory. First, theoretical work and numerical simulations confirm that the properties of the observed fields correspond to those expected from fossil fields. They also showed that rapid rotation does not modify the surface dipolar magnetic configurations, but hinders the stability of fossil fields. This explains the lack of correlation between the magnetic field properties and stellar properties in massive stars. It may also explain the lack of detections of magnetic fields in Be stars, which rotate close to their break-up velocity. In addition, observations by the BinaMIcS collaboration of hot stars in binary systems show that the fraction of those hosting detectable magnetic fields is much smaller than for single hot stars. This could be related to results obtained in simulations of massive star formation, which show that the stronger the magnetic field in the original molecular cloud, the more difficult it is to fragment massive cores to form several stars. Therefore, more and more arguments support the fossil field theory.
Tidal dissipation is known as one of the main drivers of the secular evolution of planetary systems. It directly results from dissipative mechanisms that occur in planets and stars' interiors and strongly depends on the structure and dynamics of the bodies. This work focuses on the mechanism of viscous friction in stars and planetary layers. A local model is used to study tidal dissipation. It provides general scaling laws that give a qualitative overview of the different possible behaviors of fluid tidal waves. Furthermore, it highlights the sensitivity of dissipation to the tidal frequency and the roles played by the internal parameters of the fluid such as rotation, stratification, viscosity and thermal diffusivity that will impact the spins/orbital architecture in planetary systems.
Asteroseismology and spectropolarimetry have allowed us to progress significantly in our understanding of the physics of hot stars over the last decade. It is now possible to combine these two techniques to learn even more information about hot stars and constrain their models. While only a few magnetic pulsating hot stars are known as of today and have been studied with both seismology and spectropolarimetry, new opportunities - in particular Kepler2 and BRITE - are emerging and will allow us to rapidly obtain new combined results.
Gravity waves, which propagate in radiation zones, can extract or deposit angular momentum by radiative and viscous damping. Another process, poorly explored in stellar physics, concerns their direct interaction with the differential rotation and the related turbulence. In this work, we thus study their corotation resonances, also called critical layers, that occur where the Doppler-shifted frequency of the wave approaches zero. First, we study the adiabatic and non-adiabatic propagation of gravity waves near critical layers. Next, we derive the induced transport of angular momentum. Finally, we use the dynamical stellar evolution code STAREVOL to apply the results to the case of a solar-like star. The results depend on the value of the Richardson number at the critical layer. In the first stable case, the wave is damped. In the other unstable and turbulent case, the wave can be reflected and transmitted by the critical layer with a coefficient larger than one: the critical layer acts as a secondary source of excitation for gravity waves. These new results can have a strong impact on our understanding of angular momentum transport processes in stellar interiors along stellar evolution where strong gradients of angular velocity can develop.
Our current understanding and modeling of angular momentum transport in low-mass stars are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is set on single stars slightly younger that the Sun and on subgiants and red giants observed by the space missions CoRoT and Kepler.
We perform numerical simulations of the whole Sun using the 3D anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code. In such models, the radiative and convective zones are non-linearly coupled and in the radiative interior a wave-like pattern is observed. For the first time, we are thus able to model in 3D the excitation and propagation of internal gravity waves (IGWs) in a solar-like star's radiative zone. We compare the properties of our waves to theoretical predictions and results of oscillation calculations. The obtained good agreement allows us to validate the consistency of our approach and to study the characteristics of IGWs. We find that a wave's spectrum is excited up to radial order n=58. This spectrum evolves with depth and time; we show that the lifetime of the highest-frequency modes must be greater than 550 days. We also test the sensitivity of waves to rotation and are able to retrieve the rotation rate to within 5% error by measuring the frequency splitting.
The Be phenomenon, i.e. the ejection of matter from Be stars into a circumstellar disk, has been a long lasting mystery. In the last few years, the CoRoT satellite brought clear evidence that Be outbursts are directly correlated to pulsations and rapid rotation. In particular the stochastic excitation of gravito-inertial modes, such as those detected by CoRoT in the hot Be star HD 51452, is enhanced thanks to rapid rotation. These waves increase the transport of angular momentum and help to bring the already rapid stellar rotation to its critical value at the surface, allowing the star to eject material. Below we summarize the recent observational and theoretical findings and describe the new picture of the Be phenomenon which arose from these results.
The presence of pulsations influences the local parameters at the surface of massive stars and thus it modifies the Zeeman magnetic signatures. Therefore it makes the characterisation of a magnetic field in pulsating stars more difficult and the characterisation of pulsations is thus required for the study of magnetic massive stars. Conversely, the presence of a magnetic field can inhibit differential rotation and mixing in massive stars and thus provides important constraints for seismic modelling based on pulsation studies. As a consequence, it is necessary to combine spectropolarimetric and seismic studies for all massive classical pulsators. Below we show examples of such combined studies and the interplay between physical processes.
We review the different theoretical challenges concerning magnetism in interacting binary or multiple stars that will be studied in the BinaMIcS (Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars) project during the corresponding spectropolarimetric Large Programs at CFHT and TBL. We describe how completely new and innovative topics will be studied with BinaMIcS such as the complex interactions between tidal flows and stellar magnetic fields, the MHD star-star interactions, and the role of stellar magnetism in stellar formation and vice versa. This will strongly modify our vision of the evolution of interacting binary and multiple stars.
Buran-Kaya III is a rockshelter located in Crimea (Ukraine). It provides an exceptional stratigraphic sequence extending from the Middle Paleolithic to the Neolithic. Nine Paleolithic layers have been attributed to the Streletskaya or eastern Szeletian, Micoquian, Aurignacian, Gravettian, and Swiderian cultural traditions. Human remains from the richest Gravettian layer (6-1) are radiocarbon dated to 31.9 ka BP, and therefore represent, with Peştera cu Oase (Romania), one of the oldest anatomically modern humans in Europe. The aim of this study is to obtain a controlled stratigraphic sequence of Buran-Kaya III with new 14C dates from faunal and human bones, in their paleoenvironmental context. During our new excavations (2009–2011), sediments, bones, and teeth from the stratigraphical layers were sampled for sedimentological, geochemical, and 14C analyses. Fossil bones from the 2001 excavations were also analyzed. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating, including cross-dating, was performed at Groningen, Saclay/Gif-sur-Yvette, and Oxford. Biogeochemical analysis was used to test the integrity of the bone collagen. Dates were modeled using a Bayesian approach. The sedimentological, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data are mutually consistent and show that the Paleolithic human occupations at Buran-Kaya III range from the end of MIS 3 to early MIS 1. These results provide a new chronological and paleoenvironmental framework for the human settlements in eastern Europe during the late Middle and the Upper Paleolithic.
Earth-like planets have anelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have anelastic cores. As for the fluid parts, the tidal dissipation of these regions, gravitationally perturbed by a companion, highly depends on its internal friction and thus its internal structure. Therefore, modeling this kind of interaction presents a high interest to constrain planetary interiors, whose properties are still quite uncertain. Here, we examine the anelastic tidal dissipation in deep planetary interiors, in presence of a fluid envelope, and taking into account its dependence on the rheology.
Taking plausible values for the anelastic parameters, and discussing the frequency-dependence of the anelastic dissipation, we show how this mechanism may compete with the dissipation in fluid layers, when applied to Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets. We also discuss the case of the icy giants Uranus and Neptune. Finally, we show how the results may be implemented to describe the dynamical evolution of planetary systems.
We test the stability of a magnetic equilibrium configuration using numerical simulations and semi-analytical tools. The tested configuration is, as described by Duez & Mathis (2010), the lowest energy state for a given helicity in a stellar radiation zone. We show using 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that the present configuration is stable with respect to all submitted perturbations, that would lead to the development of kink-type instabilities in the case of purely poloidal or toroidal fields, both well known to be unstable. We also discuss, using semi-analytic work, the stabilizing influence of one component on the other and show that the found configuration actually lies in the stability domain predicted by a linear analysis of resonant modes.
The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project is a consensus collaboration among many of the foremost international researchers of the physics of hot, massive stars, with the basic aim of understanding the origin, evolution and impact of magnetic fields in these objects. At the time of writing, MiMeS Large Programs have acquired over 950 high-resolution polarised spectra of about 150 individual stars with spectral types from B5-O4, discovering new magnetic fields in a dozen hot, massive stars. The quality of this spectral and magnetic matériel is very high, and the Collaboration is keen to connect with colleagues capable of exploiting the data in new or unforeseen ways. In this paper we review the structure of the MiMeS observing programs and report the status of observations, data modeling and development of related theory.
In this talk, I review the different MHD processes, which take place in massive star interiors. First, I describe MHD instabilities, which act on magnetic fields in stellar radiation zones, and the dynamo action in massive stars that give strong indications in favor of a fossil origin of the fields observed at the surface of these stars. Then, I discuss the study of MHD turbulent relaxation processes, which are now examined in stellar interiors, to describe initial conditions for fossil magnetic fields. Finally, I focus on the state of the art of the modeling of the interaction between differential rotation, fossil magnetic field, meridional circulation, and turbulence.
We conduct 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in order to test the stability of the magnetic equilibrium configuration described by Duez & Mathis (2010). This analytically-derived configuration describes the lowest energy state for a given helicity in a stellar radiation zone. The necessity of taking into account the non force-free property of the large-scale, global field is here emphasized. We then show that this configuration is stable. It therefore provides a useful model to initialize the magnetic topology in upcoming MHD simulations and stellar evolution codes taking into account magneto-rotational transport processes.