To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are several times above those of high-income countries. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (RFs) for VAP cases in ICUs of LMICs.
Prospective cohort study.
This study was conducted across 743 ICUs of 282 hospitals in 144 cities in 42 Asian, African, European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.
The study included patients admitted to ICUs across 24 years.
In total, 289,643 patients were followed during 1,951,405 patient days and acquired 8,236 VAPs. We analyzed 10 independent variables. Multiple logistic regression identified the following independent VAP RFs: male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.28; P < .0001); longer length of stay (LOS), which increased the risk 7% per day (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07–1.08; P < .0001); mechanical ventilation (MV) utilization ratio (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.23–1.31; P < .0001); continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 13.38; 95% CI, 11.57–15.48; P < .0001); tracheostomy connected to a MV, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 8.31; 95% CI, 7.21–9.58; P < .0001); endotracheal tube connected to a MV (aOR, 6.76; 95% CI, 6.34–7.21; P < .0001); surgical hospitalization (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.17–1.29; P < .0001); admission to a public hospital (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.35-1.86; P < .0001); middle-income country (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 15–1.29; P < .0001); admission to an adult-oncology ICU, which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.22–5.09; P < .0001), admission to a neurologic ICU, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.78–3.45; P < .0001); and admission to a respiratory ICU (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.79–3.07; P < .0001). Admission to a coronary ICU showed the lowest risk (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51–0.77; P < .0001).
Some identified VAP RFs are unlikely to change: sex, hospitalization type, ICU type, facility ownership, and country income level. Based on our results, we recommend focusing on strategies to reduce LOS, to reduce the MV utilization ratio, to limit CPAP use and implementing a set of evidence-based VAP prevention recommendations.
Background: Worldwide, medical staff adherence to hand hygiene (HH), the most cost-effective measure to decrease healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), is ~40%–60%. The infection control program (ICP) at An-Najah National University Hospital (NNUH), a tertiary-care referral teaching hospital located in Nablus, in northern Palestine, monitors HH compliance by direct observations using the WHO observation checklist. In this descriptive study, we investigated the prevalence of HH across the institution during 2017–2019. Methods: The WHO multimodal strategy to enhance HH in healthcare settings was implemented at NNUH, a tertiary-care referral hospital, in 2017. HH compliance has been measured during routine patient care by direct observation by ICP team and anonymously by other trained observers. Results are reported on monthly basis to the administration and medical team (nurses and doctors), and corrective plans to increase the compliance are discussed. Training is reinforced with ultraviolet light and fluorescent alcohol-based hand rub. Yearly, staff are engaged in HH Day activities (Figs. 1 and 2). Leadership support is constant by securing the annual budget for the HH program and the enforcement of HH policy across the setting. Results: NNUH, using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework, is currently in the advanced level (395 of 500) compared to 2017 (intermediate level, 292 of 500). Overall, HCW HH compliance increased from 44% (range, 31%–57%) in 2017 to 53% (range, 30%–72%) in 2018 and to 61% (range, 55%–66%) through October 2019. During the 3-year study period, Nursing compliance increased from 36% to 59% and to 64%, respectively, whereas the compliance for doctors increased from 42% to 56% and 58%, respectively. Regarding the missed opportunities, before patient was the most frequent cause for missed opportunity with a rate of 60% (Fig. 3). This missed opportunity was mainly related to the misuse of gloves (mainly among nurses), which requires an ad hoc intervention. Conclusions: Implementation of the WHO HH strategy is feasible and effective in low-income countries and leads to significant improvements in compliance. Periodic training, personnel engagement, and leadership are key factors of HH improvement in our setting.
Background: The prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in acute healthcare settings is increasing worldwide. Active screening for MDROs carriers on admission permits the prompt implementation of the appropriate precautions to decrease the probability of cross transmission to other inpatients. Objective: To report the spectrum of bacterial nasal, axilla, and perianal colonization among in patients at Najah National University Hospital (NNUH) during 2018. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed at NNUH, a tertiary-care referral university hospital in Nablus, north of Palestine, that includes medical and surgical ICUs for both adults and children from January to August 2018. Nasal, axilla, and perianal swabs were collected within the first 24 hours of admission according to hospital policy. Patients who were referred from another hospital, who were admitted to a hospital for at least 2 nights during the previous 8 months, and who are known to have an MDROs in the past were included. Swab samples were processed for isolation and identification of these multidrug-resistant strains. Transmission-based precautions were implemented if positive results were reported (ie, contact isolation) and decolonization regimens were applied according to the CDC recommendations (muporocin ointment for nasal MRSA, daily bathing with chlorhexidine 2% soap for the rest). A daily isolation list was circulated among bed managers and senior nurses and head of departments for appropriate management of beds and reallocation of patients. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was assessed using the disc-diffusion method on Mueller–Hinton agar and a Vitek-2 system. Results: During the period of the study, 1,425 nasal swabs, 1,245 axilla swabs, and 300 perianal swabs were collected according to the inclusion criteria. Positive results were reportedin 7%, 4%, and 44% for nasal, axilla, and perianal specimens, respectively. Regarding the distribution of bacterial colonization in the nasal swab, 73% were MRSA; for the axial, 29% were Pseudomonas; and from the perianal swab, the most prevalent pathogen was ESBL (56%) (Figs. 1–3). A discrepancy between the number of nasal or axilla and perianal swabs was observed, which was mainly due to the refusal of many patients to have the sample collected by the nurse. Conclusions: Colonization of the skin and mucous membranes of inpatients with MDROs is considered a risk factor for developing future infections. Therefore, active screening for those pathogens is critical for infection prevention and control programs and patient safety in acute-care settings.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.