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Myocardial bridges are often asymptomatic but may need therapy when causing ischaemia. They have rarely been reported in children or in association with CHD, where symptomatology may be mistakenly attributed to the CHD. We report a case of multiple myocardial bridges causing ischaemia in an adolescent with pulmonary stenosis and discuss management.
We present the use of pulmonary vasodilators in three adult patients with unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, aortopulmonary collaterals, and segmental pulmonary arterial hypertension. Patients improved by 1–2 NYHA classes with modest exercise-tolerance increase, and remained stable without side effects during 2.5, 10, and 14 years. Literature review revealed five studies with pulmonary vasodilators in heterogeneous, mostly repaired patient populations.
Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects with the Amplatzer® Membranous VSD Occluder has yielded promising initial results, but disturbances of conduction, including complete heart block, have been reported. We report our experience with the Amplatzer occluder in 35 patients with a median age 4.5 years, the defects being sized angiographically at 4.4 plus or minus 1.1 millimetres, with a range from 3 to 8 millimetres, and the size of the occluder varying from 4 to 12 millimetres. Over a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the rate of complete closure was 87% and 91%, at 1 and 2 years respectively, while 2 patients required surgical closure of the defect subsequent to the insertion of the device. Persistent regurgitation across the tricuspid valve related to the occluder was observed in 3 patients, and in 6 patients across the aortic valve. Abnormalities of conduction related to the procedure were noted in 7 patients, one-fifth of the cohort. The disturbances were transient in 1 patient, but permanent in 6, in one of the latter progressing after 6 months from left bundle branch block to intermittent Mobitz II second-degree atrioventricular block in association with expansion of the occluder. We conclude that transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with the Amplatzer occluder is effective with limited complications, but the incidence of immediate and progressive disturbances of conduction related to the proximity of conduction tissues to the rims of the occluder stress the importance of larger and longer studies to assess the safety of this procedure.
We report our initial experience in using the Amplatzer® vascular plug for closure of coronary arterial fistulas. The self-expanding, cylindrical, device is made from Nitinol wire mesh, and is available from 4 to 16 millimetres in diameter. We have now used the device to close fistulas in 3 patients, aged from 3 to 14 years, who presented with ratios of pulmonary-to-systemic flow from 1.5 to 3. In 2 patients, fistulas arising from the proximal right and left coronary arteries, with maximal diameters of 9 and 10 millimetres, respectively, had their narrowest diameter, of 6 millimetres, proximal to the entrance into the right atrium via a saccular aneurysm. The third fistula, with a maximal diameter of 16 millimetres, and with its origin from the circumflex coronary artery, entered the right atrium with nearly unrestricted flow, its narrowest diameter being 8 millimetres. For interventional closure, we chose plugs twice the diameter of the narrowest segment of the fistula, thus using 2 devices of 12 millimetres and one of 16 millimetres diameter. An arteriovenous loop was established through the fistula by snaring an exchange guide wire. Using a 7 or 8 French guide catheter inserted through the femoral vein, all plugs were placed at the narrowest segment of the fistula, leading to immediate complete closure of 2 fistulas. The third patient, with a fistula of the circumflex coronary artery, who received the largest plug initially had residual flow, but the fistula was found to be completely occluded at 12 months follow-up examination. We have demonstrated, therefore, safe and effective usage of the new vascular plug for transcatheter closure of moderate- to large-sized coronary arterial fistulas. The plug offers an alternative to cardiac surgery, or occlusion using coils.
Background: Definition of normative data of the great arteries from neonatal to adult ages may aid in assessment of the growth of cardiovascular structures, thus guiding the timing and type of intervention in patients with congenital cardiac disease. Methods: We calculated the cross-sectional areas of the arterial roots at the basal attachment of the valvar leaflets, the sinuses, and standardized distal sites using cineangiograms of 59 normal children and adolescents with mean age of 5.4 plus or minus 4.7 years and a range from 0.1 to 16 years, the children having a mean weight of 21.2 plus or minus 15.7 kilograms, with a range from 2.2 to 68 kilograms, and mean height of 108 plus or minus 35 centimetres, with a range from 43 to 184 centimetres. Values at each site were calculated averaging end-diastolic and end-systolic measurements, and indexed to body surface area. Results are expressed as the mean plus or minus the standard deviation. Results: The diameter of the aortic root at the basal attachment of the leaflets was 249 plus or minus 26, the midpoint of the sinuses 379 plus or minus 59, the sinutubular junction 290 plus or minus 58, the isthmus 158 plus or minus 36, the postisthmic region 152 plus or minus 33, and the descending aorta at the level of diaphragm 130 plus or minus 18 millimetres squared per metre squared. The pulmonary root measured at the basal attachment of the leaflets was 253 plus or minus 28, the midpoint of the sinuses 352 plus or minus 58, the sinutubular junction 293 plus or minus 58, the right pulmonary artery 176 plus or minus 25, the left pulmonary artery 153 plus or minus 20, and sum of right and left pulmonary arteries 330 plus or minus 37 millimetres squared per metre squared. All indexes were consistent over a wide range for body surface areas. Conclusions: Definition of normative data of the great vessels may aid in the evaluation of congenital or acquired abnormalities, serving as guidelines for intervention during medical or surgical management and follow-up.
Apart from closure of atrial septal defects, there is little information concerning the use of the CardioSEAL family of occluders in congenitally malformed hearts. We review here our initial experience using the CardioSEAL and STARFlex occluders in 12 patients aged 17.3 ± 11.2 years, with a range from 4 to 34 years. Of the patients, 5 had fenestrated extracardiac Fontan procedures, 5 had persistent patency of the arterial duct, 1 had a leak across a Mustard baffle, and the final patient had a huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We implanted successfully 9 CardioSEAL, and 3 STARFlex occluders, with sizes from 17 to 40 mm. In one patient, the occluder embolized to the right pulmonary artery, from where it was retrieved through the catheter. In two patients, there was a trivial residual leak immediately after implantation, but no patient had a residual leak after 6 months of follow-up. We noted improved ventricular dimensions, without any fractures of the arms of the occluders, perforations, or disturbances of flow after 2.4 ± 0.9 years of follow-up. We have demonstrated, therefore, the versatility of the CardioSEAL and STARFlex occluders, which have been used safely and effectively to close a variety of intra and extracardiac communications other than atrial septal defects.
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