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The typical architectures for single-transistor capacitorless dynamic random access memory (1T-DRAM) are reviewed. This memory takes advantage of floating-body effects in SOI-like devices. The principles of operation and the key mechanisms for memory programming and reading are described. Most of these devices can be enriched with non-volatile storage capability. Several possibilities for such ‘unified’ memory are explored.
With respect to Silicon-on-Diamond approaches as an alternative to SOI where diamond is used as the buried dielectric, we have in recent works demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approaches where the CVD diamond layer is grown on silicon using Bias Enhanced Nucleation (BEN) over large area substrates, then smoothed and assembled to successfully enable the fabrication of first prototypes of silicon-on-diamond substrates. The key novelty to those SOD substrates were that only a very thin box dielectric diamond layer is used (typically from 150 to 500nm thick), as required by the current SOI technology. However we had also observed that the silicon-diamond interface quality to be sensitive to the nature of the nucleation interface. Thus the current contribution here studies the chemical nature of various capping materials used to solve the issue of electrical defects in case of direct silicon-diamond interface and at the same time to enable the whole system to benefit from the high thermal conductivity of diamond when compared to other standard electrical insulating materials.
Adequate techniques for the electrical characterization of SOI structures are reviewed and applied to reveal a coherent image of SIMOX material. Sheet resistance, low temperature Hall effect and photoconductivity measurements are analysed with respect to the processing conditions. Depth profiles are identified by spreading resistance, MOS-Hall devices and differential ellipsometry. After annealing at high temperature the activation of thermal donors, not new donors, is attenuated. The properties of front and buried interfaces are compared with each other and referred to implantation and annealing conditions. The measurements of the dynamic transconductance, charge pumping current and noise in MOSFET's are shown to provide easier and more relevant evaluation than conventional MOS capacitance techniques. The minority carrier generation is studied by separating the contributions of the volume, interfaces and sidewalk. Not only is the performance of transistors fabricated on SIMOX excellent, but additional gain is possible using the new concept of volume inversion.
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