Sperm morphometric and morphologic data have been shown to represent useful tools for monitoring fertility, improving assisted reproduction techniques and conservation of genetic material as well as detecting inbreeding of endangered primates. We provide here for the first time sperm morphologic and morphometric data from Cercopithecus neglectus, Cercopithecus cephus, Papio papio and critically endangered Cercopithecus roloway, as well as comparative data from other Cercopithecinae species, i.e. Allochrocebus lhoesti, Mandrillus sphinx and Papio anubis. Following collection from the epididymis, spermatozoa were measured for each species for the following parameters: head length, head width, head perimeter, head area, midpiece length and total flagellum length, and the head volume, ellipticity, elongation, roughness and regularity were then calculated. Our data are consistent with both the general morphology and the morphometric proportions of Cercopithecinae sperm. Some specificities were observed, with C. cephus displaying a narrow head (width = 2.76 ± 0.26 µM) and C. roloway displaying a short midpiece (6.65 ± 0.61 µM). This data set represents an important contribution, especially for Cercopithecus roloway, one of the most endangered monkeys in the world, and further data on additional specimens coupled to data on mating systems and reproductive ecology should allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morphological differences across primate species.