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A testing rate for measles above 80% is required by the WHO European Region Measles Elimination strategy to verify elimination. To comply with this rate, we explored factors associated with the return of oral fluid kits (OFK) by suspected measles cases. We described the cases and conducted a mixed-effects analysis to assess the relationship between socio-demographic and public health management characteristics and the likelihood of returning an OFK to the reference laboratory. Of 3,929 cases who were sent a postal OFK, 2,513 (67%) returned the kit. Adjusting for confounding, registration with a general practitioner (GP) (aOR:1.48, 95%CI:1.23–1.76) and living in a less deprived area (aOR:1.35, 95%CI:1.04–1.74) were associated with an increased likelihood of returning the OFK. The odds of returning the OFK also increased if the HPT contacted the parents/guardians of all cases prior to sending the kit and confirmed their address (aOR:2.01, 95%CI:1.17–3.42). Cases notified by a hospital (aOR:1.94, 95%CI:1.31–2.87) or GP (aOR:1.52; 95%CI:1.06–2.16) also had higher odds of returning the OFK. HPTs may want to consider these factors when managing suspected cases of measles since this may help in increasing the testing rates to the WHO-recommended level.
To understand the transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a hospital outbreak to inform infection control actions.
Retrospective cohort study.
General medical and elderly inpatient wards in a hospital in England.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were classified as community or healthcare associated by time from admission to onset or positivity using European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control definitions. COVID-19 symptoms were classified as asymptomatic, nonrespiratory, or respiratory. Infectiousness was calculated from 2 days prior to 14 days after symptom onset or positive test. Cases were defined as healthcare-associated COVID-19 when infection was acquired from the wards under investigation. COVID-19 exposures were calculated based on symptoms and bed proximity to an infectious patient. Risk ratios and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated from univariable and multivariable logistic regression.
Of 153 patients, 65 were COVID-19 patients and 45 of these were healthcare-associated cases. Exposure to a COVID-19 patient with respiratory symptoms was associated with healthcare-associated infection irrespective of proximity (aOR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.6.3–8.87). Nonrespiratory exposure was only significant within 2.5 m (aOR, 5.21; 95% CI, 1.15–23.48). A small increase in risk ratio was observed for exposure to a respiratory patient for >1 day compared to 1 day from 2.04 (95% CI, 0.99–4.22) to 2.36 (95% CI, 1.44–3.88).
Respiratory exposure anywhere within a 4-bed bay was a risk, whereas nonrespiratory exposure required bed distance ≤2.5 m. Standard infection control measures required beds to be >2 m apart. Our findings suggest that this may be insufficient to stop SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We recommend improving cohorting and further studies into bed distance and transmission factors.
On 16–17 January 2020, four suspected mumps cases were reported to the local Public Health Authorities with an epidemiological link to a local school and football club. Of 18 suspected cases identified, 14 were included in this study. Laboratory results confirmed mumps virus as the cause and further sequencing identified genotype G. Our findings highlight that even with a high MMR vaccine coverage, mumps outbreaks in children and young adults can occur. Since most of the cases had documented immunity for mumps, we hypothesise that waning immunity or discordant mumps virus strains are likely explanations for this outbreak.
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