To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Hallux valgus (HV) is a common foot deformity of multifactorial etiology, but knowledge about the relative importance of genetics and environments on HV has been limited. In order to estimate genetic influences on HV, 1,265 adults, including 175 monozygotic twin (MZ) pairs, 31 dizygotic twin (DZ) pairs, and 853 first-degree singleton family members of the twins were included from the Healthy Twin study, a population-based twin-family cohort in Korea. All participants underwent foot examination and weight-bearing radiographic assessment (anterior-posterior and lateral) in addition to a general health survey. Of the subjects, 208 (16.4%) were classified as HV (as HV angle >20°). The genetic influence on HV was estimated to be substantial; the heritability of HV was 0.51 (95% CI 0.42–0.59) and the heritability of HV angle was 0.47 (0.38–0.56), while contributions from shared environmental effects were negligible. These findings suggest that genetic factors play an important role in determining HV deformity.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.