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To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
This study examined basal peak irrationalities according to boundary conditions of the hectorite basal diffraction unit (BDU), which were recognized as the total assembly of 2:1 phyllosilicate layer plus interlayer material. The hectorite basal profiles were computer-simulated using the three kinds of BDU settings identified from the middle of octahedral sheets in the nearest neighbor (centrosymmetric model), the middle of interlayers in the nearest neighbor (centrosymmetric model), and a basal oxygen plane to the margin of interlayer in contact with the next phyllosilicate layer (non-centrosymmetric model). In the results of simulations, irrationality and asymmetry of the hectorite basal peaks relied straightforwardly on the BDU scattering modulations for the non-Bragg angles containing information on the synergic scattering events of phyllosilicate layer and interlayer material. Among the concerned BDU boundaries, the non-centrosymmetric model more effectively represented the real hectorite profile than the two previously reported centrosymmetric models.
This study attempted to quantify the interstratificational broadening of the randomly interstratified illite/smectite (random I∕S) basal reflection and to evaluate the percentage of the interstratified illite layers (%I) from the result. The interstratificational broadening was quantified using the distributional discrepancy (D) defined as D=[∑t∣ft(obs)−ft(ref)∣]∕2, where ft(obs) is the frequency of a crystallite containing thickness, t (the number of layers), measured from a basal reflection broadened by interstratifications, and ft(ref) is the frequency for a basal reflection with no interstratificational broadening. The basal reflections at 5.2° 2θ under glycolation and 8.84° 2θ under thermal dehydration provided the ft(obs) and ft(ref) of random I∕S. The linear relation, D=2.17%I+2.49(0⩽%I⩽30), was obtained from simulations for SWy-2 (Wyoming, USA).