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To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
Geochemical characteristics of marine sediment from the southern Drake Passage were analyzed to reconstruct variations in sediment provenance and transport paths during the late Quaternary. The 5.95 m gravity core used in this study records paleoenvironmental changes during the last approximately 600 ka. Down-core variations in trace element, rare earth element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions reveal that sediment provenance varied according to glacial cycles. During glacial periods, detrital sediments in the southern Drake Passage were mostly derived from the nearby South Shetland Islands and shelf sediments. In contrast, interglacial sediments are composed of mixed sediments, derived from both West Antarctica and East Antarctica. The East Antarctic provenance of the interglacial sediments was inferred to be the Weddell Sea region. Sediment input from the Weddell Sea was reduced during glacial periods by extensive ice sheets and weakened current from the Weddell Sea. Sediment supply from the Weddell Sea increased during interglacial periods, especially those with higher warmth such as MIS 5, 9, and 11. This suggests that the influence of deep water from the Weddell Sea increases during interglacial periods and decreases during glacial periods, with the degree of influence increasing as interglacial intensity increases.
We present a rapid and sensitive surface acoustic wave (SAW) immunosensor that utilizes gold staining as a signal enhancement method. A sandwich immunoassay was performed on sensing area of the SAW sensor, which could specifically capture and detect cardiac markers (cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK)-MB, and myoglobin). The analytes in human serum were captured on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that were conjugated in advance with detection antibodies. Introduction of these complexes to the capture antibody-immobilized sensor surface resulted in a classic AuNP-based sandwich immunoassay format that has been used for signal amplification. In order to achieve further signal enhancement, a gold staining method was performed, which demonstrated that it is possible to obtain gold staining-mediated signal augmentation on a mass-sensitive device. The sensor response due to gold staining varied as a function of cardiac marker concentration.
Oxidative modification of LDL is causally involved in the development of atherosclerosis and occurs in vivo in the blood as well as within the vascular wall. The present study attempted to explore whether polyphenolic flavonoids influence monocyte-endothelium interaction and lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) expression involved in the early development of atherosclerosis. The flavones luteolin and apigenin inhibited THP-1 cell adhesion onto oxidised LDL-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), while the flavanols of ( − )epigallocatechin gallate and (+)catechin, the flavonols of quercetin and rutin, and the flavanones of naringin, naringenin, hesperidin and hesperetin did not have such effects. Consistently, Western blot analysis revealed that the flavones at 25 μm dramatically and significantly abolished HUVEC expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin evidently enhanced by oxidised LDL; these inhibitory effects were exerted by drastically down regulating mRNA levels of these cell adhesion molecules. In addition, quercetin and luteolin significantly attenuated expression of LOX-1 protein up regulated in oxidised LDL-activated HUVEC with a fall in transcriptional mRNA levels of LOX-1. In addition, quercetin and luteolin clearly blunted oxidised LDL uptake by HUVEC treated with oxidised LDL. The results demonstrate that the flavones luteolin and apigenin as well as quercetin were effective in the different initial steps of atherosclerosis process by inhibiting oxidised LDL-induced endothelial monocyte adhesion and/or oxidised LDL uptake. Therefore, certain flavonoids qualify as anti-atherogenic agents in LDL systems, which may have implications for strategies attenuating endothelial dysfunction-related atherosclerosis.
The hot He-burning horizontal-branch (HB) stars and their progeny are most likely dominant ultraviolet (UV) sources in the old stellar population systems such as globular clusters (GCs). Integrated FUV flux can be an age indicator of GCs and allow us to investigate age distributions of GCs within a given galaxy or between galaxies. The unprecedented set of UV photometry for M31 by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), coupled with most recent detailed population models enable to study detailed global UV properties of M31 GCs.
We report the discovery of three new star clusters in the halo of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. These clusters were found in the deep images taken with the MegaPrime at the CFHT covering a total field of 2 deg $\times$ 2 deg. The most remote cluster is found to be located as far as 79 arcmin away from the center of NGC 6822. This distance is several times larger than the size of the region in NGC 6822 where star clusters were previously found. Morphological structures of the clusters and color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stars in the clusters show that at least two of these clusters are proabably old globular clusters.
Field emission characteristics were investigated for zinc oxide nanostructures which were grown on NiO catalyzed silicon (100) substrate by chemical vapor deposition method. The asgrown zinc oxide showed needle-shaped nanostructures with tip diameters of 20∼40 nm and length of 3∼5 νm. The turn-on field was found to be about 6 V/νm at a current density of 1 νA/cm2. After several field emission measurements, the turn-on field was increased up to 8.5 V/νm and the magnitude of field enhancement factor was decreased from 1190 to 940. According to SEM, the tip diameter increase of the zinc oxide to 60 nm was observed after several emission measurements. Therefore, degradation of the field emission characteristic after measurements is attributed to this deformation of the tip shape.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been significantly used for the field emitters for display applications. It is necessary to investigate the process variables affecting the screen printing of carbon nanotubes for the fabrication of good-quality field emitter devices with uniformity. Screen printing techniques have some advantages such as the short processing time and lower processing cost. The carbon nanotube pastes for screen printing are normally composed of organic binders, carbon nanotubes, and some additive materials. In this study, the carbon nanotube emitters for field emission displays were fabricated with different processing variables such as paste viscosity, paste composition, screen mesh, etc. The CNT pastes were printed on Cr-coated/Ag-printed soda-lime glass substrates. As a result, the processing variables were optimized for the good screen printing. From the I-V characteristics, the turn-on field of single-walled nanotubes was lower than that of multi-walled nanotubes. The decrease in the mesh number of screen masks resulted in decreasing the turn-on field and increasing the electron emission current due to the higher density and vertical alignment of printed-CNTs.
We present our recent revision of model constructions for the horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters, which suggests the HB morphology is more sensitive to age compared to our earlier models. We also present our high precision CCD photometry for the classic second parameter pair M3 and M13. The relative age dating based on this photometry indicates that M13 is indeed older than M3 by 1.7 Gyr. This is consistent with the age difference predicted from our new models, which provides a further support that the HB morphology is a reliable age indicator in most population II stellar systems.
The degradation behavior of integrated Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/Pt capacitors caused by hydrogen impregnation during the spin-on glass (SOG)-based intermetal dielectric (IMD) process was investigated. SOG was tested as an IMD since it offers better planarity for multilevel metallization processes compared to other SiO2 deposition methods. It was found that the SOG itself does not degrade the ferroelectric performance. Deposition of an under-layer of SiOxNy by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using SiH4 + N2O + N2 source gases and a SiO2?x capping layer by another PECVD process using SiH4 + N2O source gases produced hydrogen as a reaction by-product. The hydrogen diffused into the SBT layer and degraded the ferroelectric performance during subsequent annealing cycles. A very thin (10 nm) Al2O3 layer grown by atomic layer deposition before the IMD process successfully blocked the impregnation of the hydrogen. Therefore, excellent ferroelectric performance of the SBT capacitors were maintained after the multilevel metallization process as well as passivation. The adoption of SOG in the IMD process greatly improved the surface flatness of the wafer resulting in a higher capacitor yield with very good uniformity in ferroelectric properties over the 8-in.-diameter wafer.
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