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Both stunting and overweight are present in children across China. Seemingly paradoxical, these two conditions can also coexist in the same child. The aim was to examine the associations between dietary food/nutrient intake and plasma lipid profiles related to stunting and overweight status.
The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey was a family-based nationally representative cross-sectional study.
Thirty-one provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.
The study included 13 770 children aged 2–17 years. The sample size for the four exposure groups was 10 814 for children of normal height and weight, 2128 for stunted, 729 for overweight and 99 for stunted overweight.
Compared with children of normal height and weight, stunted and stunted overweight children consumed more high-energy-dense foods with a lower dietary diversity score, less protein, polyunsaturated fat and Fe, and a higher molar ratio of phytate to Ca. On the contrary, overweight children tended to consume significantly less carbohydrates and more protein and fat. Overall, stunted overweight children consumed lower amounts of vegetables, fruit, white meat (poultry and fish) and more milk. The OR for prevalent dyslipidaemia were 1·32 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·53), 1·76 (95 % CI 1·48, 2·09) and 2·59 (95 % CI 1·65, 4·07) among stunted, overweight and stunted overweight children, respectively, compared with children of normal height and weight. In addition, being overweight was significantly associated with high glucose concentrations, whereas stunting was significantly associated with having anaemia.
Limited dietary diversity and intake of high-energy-dense foods were notably observed among stunted overweight children. Furthermore, being stunted and/or overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of unhealthy lipid profiles.
To assess the intake inadequacy and food sources of zinc of people in China.
Design and subjects
Diets of 68 962 subjects aged 2–101 years (urban 21 103, rural 47 859) in the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recall for three consecutive days. Zinc intake inadequacy was calculated based on values suggested by the World Health Organization.
The median zinc intake ranged from 4.9 mg day− 1 (urban girls, 2–3 years) to 11.9 mg day− 1 (rural males, 19+ years). The zinc density of urban residents (2–3 to 19+ years) was 5.0–5.3 mg day− 1 (1000 kcal)− 1, significantly higher than that of their rural counterparts (4.7–4.8 mg day− 1 (1000 kcal)− 1). Differences in food sources of zinc from cereal grains (27.4–45.1 vs. 51.6–63.2%) and animal foods (28.4–54.8 vs. 16.8–30.6%) were found between urban and rural residents. Zinc from vegetables and fruits (8.2–13.8 vs. 9.7–12.4%) and legumes (1.3–3.3 vs. 2.5–3.4%) was comparable between urban and rural residents. The proportion of zinc intake inadequacy ranged between 2.8% (urban females, 19+ years) and 29.4% (rural lactating women). Rural residents had higher proportions of zinc intake inadequacy than their urban counterparts. Significantly higher proportions of zinc inadequacy were found in the category of phytate/zinc molar ratio >15 for both rural and urban residents.
About 20% of rural children are at risk of inadequate zinc intake, with phytate as a potential important inhibitor. Moreover, lactating women are also considered a vulnerable group.
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