To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The random distributed-feedback fiber laser (RFL) is a new approach to obtain a high-power stable supercontinuum (SC) source. To consider both structure simplification and high-power SC output, an innovative structure achieving a kilowatt-level SC output in a single-stage RFL with a half-open cavity is demonstrated in this paper. It consists of a fiber oscillator, a piece of long passive fiber and a broadband coupler, among which the broadband coupler acting as a feedback device is crucial in SC generation. When the system has no feedback, the backward output power is up to 298 W under the pump power of 1185 W. When the feedback is introduced before the pump laser, the backward power loss can be reduced and the pump can be fully utilized, which could promote forward output power and conversion efficiency significantly. Under the maximum pump power of 1847 W, a 1300 W SC with spectrum ranging from 887 to 1920 nm and SC conversion efficiency of 66% is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, it is the simplest structure used for high-power SC generation, and both the generated SC output power and the conversion efficiency are highest in the scheme of the half-opened RFL output SC.
Sedimentary records from the Kumtag (also known as Kumtagh) Desert (KMD) in northwestern China are investigated to better understand Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes in this hyper-arid region. Presented here are the results of probably the first systematic survey of sedimentary sequences from the KMD, with the chronology determined by the optically stimulated luminescence dating. The variation of sedimentary facies, supported by granular and geochemical paleoenvironmental proxies, is used to decipher the history of Late Quaternary environment changes. The results demonstrate that a constantly dry condition characterized the eastern KMD since the last glacial maximum, but with occurrences of wetter periods. From ca. 17 to 15 ka, fluvial activity was probably triggered by melting of glaciers in mountains located south of the KMD. A distinctly drier stage (ca. 13–7 ka) was recognized due to the prominent occurrence of aeolian sands. A wetter environment likely persisted between ca. 4.4 and 2.2 ka, consistent with evidence of human activities. While the causes of paleoenvironmental changes in the eastern KMD are still a matter of debate, the melting of glaciers in the Altyn-Tagh Mountains in the south must be considered as an important factor.
Large-scale mass-sporting events pose unique challenges for emergency health teams. Data is limited in athletes with sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) and the emergency medical services (EMS) in major sporting events that took place after the coronavirus pandemic.
This retrospective observational study describes data from the Taipei Marathon event that took place on December 19, 2021, in Taiwan. The temperature was about 15.2–19.3°C. Four SCAs among 18,144 half-marathoners and the EMS were enrolled.
A medical command center was set up 100 meters from the finish line. Ten medical tents, one first-aid station, and nine event ambulances were distributed along the course, and one medical tent was placed near the baggage storage area. Each medical tent comprised: 1 doctor, 1–3 nurses, and 1–3 paramedics. The in-event EMS also comprised a mobile first-aid team. Thirty paramedics rode motorcycles and carried automated external defibrillators and emergency medical kits throughout the racecourse.
Among the 7,811 full- and 18,144 half-marathoners, the total number of SCAs was four male half-marathoners. Three runners (75%) stated that they decreased their weekly running volume during the pandemic restrictions’ period. Two runners (50%) experienced cardiac arrest in the final quarter of the race. The median interval of time between SCA occurrence and EMS arrival was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range, 0.5–4 minutes). Electric shocks were delivered to all the four runners (100%) experiencing ventricular fibrillation, and all of them were successfully resuscitated in the field. The median interval of cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration before return of spontaneous circulation was 8.5 minutes (interquartile range, 6–9.5 minutes).
4/18144 is a significantly high number of SCA compared to data from the annual Taipei Half-Marathon between 2016 and 2020 and past half-marathons worldwide. The high prevalence rate of SCA (22 per 100,000) may be due to inadequate acclimation and training volumes.
Sleep apnea is one of the most common sleep disorders. The consequences of undiagnosed sleep apnea can be very serious, increasing the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease over a long period of time. However, many people are often unaware of their condition. The gold standard for diagnosing sleep apnea is nighttime polysomnography monitoring in a specialized sleep laboratory. However, these diagnoses are expensive and the number of beds is limited, and there is insufficient monitoring in terms of time dimension. Existing methods for automated detection use no more than three physiological signals, but all other signals are also associated with the patient’s sleep. In addition, the limited amount of medical real annotation data, especially abnormal samples, lead to weak model generalization capability. The gap between model generalization capability and medical field needs still exists. In this paper, we propose a method for integrating medical interpretation rules into a long short-term memory neural network based on self-attention with multichannel respiratory signals as input. We obtain attention weights through a token-level attention mechanism and then extract key rules of medical interpretation to assist the weights, improving model generalization and reducing the dependence on data volume. Compared with the best prediction performance of existing methods, the average improvements of our method in accuracy, precision, and f1-score are 3.26%, 7.03%, and 1.78%, respectively. The algorithm tested the performance of our model on the Sleep Heart Health Study data set and found that the model outperformed existing methods and could help physicians make decisions in their practices.
Post-acceleration of protons in helical coil targets driven by intense, ultrashort laser pulses can enhance ion energy by utilizing the transient current from the targets’ self-discharge. The acceleration length of protons can exceed a few millimeters, and the acceleration gradient is of the order of GeV/m. How to ensure the synchronization between the accelerating electric field and the protons is a crucial problem for efficient post-acceleration. In this paper, we study how the electric field mismatch induced by current dispersion affects the synchronous acceleration of protons. We propose a scheme using a two-stage helical coil to control the current dispersion. With optimized parameters, the energy gain of protons is increased by four times. Proton energy is expected to reach 45 MeV using a hundreds-of-terawatts laser, or more than 100 MeV using a petawatt laser, by controlling the current dispersion.
Drawing on social exchange theory, our study aims to examine how age-inclusive human resource (HR) practices affect work engagement by shaping the age-diversity climate and perceived organizational support (POS). We hypothesize that diversity beliefs play a moderating role in the relationship between age-inclusive HR practices and POS. Our analysis of a sample of 983 employees from 48 organizations in China highlights the direct impact of age-inclusive HR practices on work engagement. Moreover, age-diversity climate and POS mediate the association between age-inclusive HR practices and work engagement. We further demonstrate that diversity beliefs play a moderating role in the association between age-inclusive HR practices and POS. Our findings not only contribute to the literature but also provide practical implications for managing an aging workforce.
Mental disorders, including depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia, share a common neuropathy of disturbed large-scale coordinated brain maturation. However, high-interindividual heterogeneity hinders the identification of shared and distinct patterns of brain network abnormalities across mental disorders. This study aimed to identify shared and distinct patterns of altered structural covariance across mental disorders.
Subject-level structural covariance aberrance in patients with mental disorders was investigated using individualized differential structural covariance network. This method inferred structural covariance aberrance at the individual level by measuring the degree of structural covariance in patients deviating from matched healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted anatomical images of 513 participants (105, 98, 190 participants with depression, OCD and schizophrenia, respectively, and 130 age- and sex-matched HCs) were acquired and analyzed.
Patients with mental disorders exhibited notable heterogeneity in terms of altered edges, which were otherwise obscured by group-level analysis. The three disorders shared high difference variability in edges attached to the frontal network and the subcortical-cerebellum network, and they also exhibited disease-specific variability distributions. Despite notable variability, patients with the same disorder shared disease-specific groups of altered edges. Specifically, depression was characterized by altered edges attached to the subcortical-cerebellum network; OCD, by altered edges linking the subcortical-cerebellum and motor networks; and schizophrenia, by altered edges related to the frontal network.
These results have potential implications for understanding heterogeneity and facilitating personalized diagnosis and interventions for mental disorders.
Plasma vertical displacement control is essential for the stable operation of tokamak devices. The traditional plasma vertical displacement calculation method is not suitable for balancing speed and accuracy simultaneously, which is necessary for real-time feedback control. In this study, neural networks are used to rapidly detect vertical displacement recognition. Based on a fully connected neural network, the vertical displacement calculation model is trained and tested using magnetic data of approximately 2000 shots. To compare the effects of different inputs on vertical displacement calculation, different magnetic measurement diagnostic signals are used to train and test the model. Compared with a full magnetic measurement dataset, 39 magnetic measurement signals (38 magnetic probes and plasma current) show better accuracy with mean square error <0.0005. The model is tested using historical experimental data, and it demonstrates accurate vertical displacement calculation even in the case of a vertical displacement event. In general, neural network algorithm has great application potential in vertical displacement calculation.
Childhood trauma influences the clinical features of schizophrenia. In this study, we examined how childhood trauma and perceived stress are associated with clinical manifestations and subcortical gray matter volumes (GMVs) in patients with schizophrenia.
We recruited 127 patients with schizophrenia and 83 healthy controls for assessment of early childhood trauma, perceived stress, and clinical symptoms. With structural brain imaging, we identified the GMVs of subcortical structures and examined the relationships between childhood trauma, perceived stress, clinical symptoms, and subcortical GMVs.
Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed higher levels of childhood trauma and perceived stress. Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly smaller amygdala and hippocampus GMVs as well as total cortical GMVs than age-matched controls. Childhood trauma score was significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms, depression, perceived stress, and amygdala GMVs. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with clinical symptoms, depression, and hippocampus and amygdala GMVs. Further, the association between childhood trauma (emotional neglect) and stress coping ability was mediated by right amygdala GMV in patients with schizophrenia.
Patients with schizophrenia had more exposure to early-life trauma and poorer stress coping. Both childhood trauma and perceived stress were associated with smaller amygdala volumes. The relationship between early-life trauma and perceived stress was mediated by right amygdala GMV in patients with schizophrenia. These findings together suggest the long-term effects of childhood trauma on perceived stress and the subcortical volumetric correlates of the effects in schizophrenia.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Compared to the streamwise instability, the cross-flow instability in high-enthalpy flows has received relatively less attention, but the latter is of vital importance in the flow transition for practical configurations. This work aims to investigate the cross-flow primary and secondary instabilities in hypersonic and high-enthalpy boundary layers, considering thermochemical non-equilibrium (TCNE) effects. The numerical tools adopted include a high-order shock-fitting solver, nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary instability theory (SIT). The flow over a swept parabola is calculated at a free-stream Mach number of 16. It is found that TCNE has a destabilizing effect on the cross-flow mode with a non-catalytic wall. Two important non-dimensional parameters are summarized to explain this effect. One is the ratio between the wall and boundary-layer edge temperatures, and the other is the cross-flow Mach number. Due to nonlinear effects, the stationary cross-flow vortices evolve and exhibit the classic rollover structures as in lower-speed flows. Two different disturbance energy norms are used in the energy budget analysis to classify the secondary cross-flow instability modes. The results from SIT highlight the importance of type-IV modes in TCNE flows at the downwash region of the vortex. The type-IV modes arise with the combined contribution from the wall-normal (on top and trough of the vortex) and spanwise (in the downwash region) production terms. The type-I mode is dominant in the calorically perfect gas case with an adiabatic wall, whereas the type-IV mode has the largest growth rate in the TCNE cases irrespective of wall temperature variation.
Brachiopods suffered high levels of extinction during the Permian–Triassic crisis, and their diversity failed to return to Permian levels. In the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, brachiopods were extremely rare worldwide, especially in the southern hemisphere. Here, we report a new Early Triassic brachiopod fauna from the Selong section in southern Tibet, China. A new genus and three new species have been identified: Selongthyris plana Wang and Chen n. gen. n. sp., Piarorhynchella selongensis Wang and Chen n. sp., and Schwagerispira cheni Wang and Chen n. sp., which are typical. The ontogenies and internal structures of these three new species are described in detail. This brachiopod fauna corresponds to the Neospathodus pakistanensis and Neospathodus waageni conodont biozones and Kashmirites and Anasibirites ammonoid biozones, indicating a late Dienerian to late Smithian age. The post-extinction recovery of brachiopods in the Himalayas may have begun by the early Smithian of the Early Triassic. In addition, these species did not persist into the Spathian substage, suggesting that the newly evolved brachiopods in the southern Tethys were severely affected by the late Smithian extinction event.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our study aimed to clarify the involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in the beneficial effects of NAC on HFD-induced NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % fat), a HFD (45 % fat) or a HFD plus NAC (2 g/l). After 14-week of intervention, NAC rescued the deleterious alterations induced by HFD, including the changes in body and liver weights, hepatic TAG, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate transaminase and liver histomorphology (haematoxylin and eosin and Oil red O staining). Through whole-transcriptome sequencing, 52 167 (50 758 known and 1409 novel) hepatic lncRNA were detected. Our cross-comparison data revealed the expression of 175 lncRNA was changed by HFD but reversed by NAC. Five of those lncRNA, lncRNA-NONMMUT148902·1 (NO_902·1), lncRNA-XR_001781798·1 (XR_798·1), lncRNA-NONMMUT141720·1 (NO_720·1), lncRNA-XR_869907·1 (XR_907·1), and lncRNA-ENSMUST00000132181 (EN_181), were selected based on an absolute log2 fold change value of greater than 4, P-value < 0·01 and P-adjusted value < 0·01. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed the levels of lncRNA-NO_902·1, lncRNA-XR_798·1, and lncRNA-EN_181 were decreased by HFD but restored by NAC, consistent with the RNA sequencing. Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network containing lncRNA-EN_181, 3 miRNA, and 13 mRNA, which was associated with the NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC.
In this work, an all-fiberized and narrow-linewidth fiber amplifier with record output power and near-diffraction-limited beam quality is presented. Up to 6.12 kW fiber laser with the conversion efficiency of approximately 78.8% is achieved through the fiber amplifier based on a conventional step-index active fiber. At the maximum output power, the 3 dB spectral linewidth is approximately 0.86 nm and the beam quality factor is Mx2 = 1.43, My2 = 1.36. We have also measured and compared the output properties of the fiber amplifier employing different pumping schemes. Notably, the practical power limit of the fiber amplifier could be estimated through the maximum output powers of the fiber amplifier employing unidirectional pumping schemes. Overall, this work could provide a good reference for the optimal design and potential exploration of high-power narrow-linewidth fiber laser systems.
Many waterflooding oil fields, injecting water into an oil-bearing reservoir for pressure maintenance, are in their middle to late stages of development. To explore the geological conditions and improve oilfield recovery of the most important well group of the Hu 136 block, located on the border areas of three provinces (Henan, Shandong, and Hebei), Zhongyuan Oilfield, Sinopec, central China, a 14C cross-well tracer monitoring technology was developed and applied in monitoring the development status and recognize the heterogeneity of oil reservoirs. The tracer response in the production well was tracked, and the water drive speed, swept volume of the injection fluid were obtained. Finally, the reservoir heterogeneity characteristics, such as the dilution coefficient, porosity, permeability, and average pore-throat radius, were fitted according to the mathematical model of the heterogeneous multi-layer inter-well theory. The 14C-AMS technique developed in this work is expected to be a potential analytical method for evaluating underground reservoir characteristics and providing crucial scientific guidance for the mid to late oil field recovery process.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a cell surface receptor, belonging to the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily. IGF1R plays a role not only in normal cell development but also in malignant transformation, which has become a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of human cancer. This study aimed to explore insertions and deletions (indels) in IGF1R gene and investigate their association with growth traits in four Chinese cattle breeds (Xianan cattle, Jinnan cattle, Qinchuan cattle and Nanyang cattle). The current paper identified a 28-bp indel by polymerase chain reaction within IGF1R gene. The analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the locus and the hucklebone width of Nanyang cattle in four periods, in which it was highly correlated at 6, 12 and 18 months. At the age of 6 months, it was also significantly correlated with body height, body weight and body length. Association analysis showed that the locus in Jinnan cattle was extremely significantly correlated with body slanting length and body weight, and significantly correlated with chest circumference. There was no significant correlation between this locus and growth traits of Xianan cattle and Qinchuan cattle. The detected indel in the IGF1R gene was significantly associated with growth traits in Jinnan and Nanyang cattle, and could be used as a molecular marker for growth trait selection.
With the increase of crewed space missions and the rise of space microbiology, the research of microbes grown under microgravity environment has been attracting more attention. The research scope in space microbiology has been extended beyond pathogens directly related to spaceflight. Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague, is also of interest to researchers. After being cultivated for 40 consecutive passages in either simulated microgravity (SMG) or normal gravity (NG) conditions, the Y. pestis strain 201 cultures were analysed regarding their phenotypic features. By using crystal violet staining assays, increased biofilm amount was detected in Y. pestis grown under SMG condition. Besides that, the damage degrees of Hela cell caused by SMG-grown Y. pestis were found diminished in comparison to those under NG condition. Consistent with this observation, the death course was delayed in mice infected with SMG-grown Y. pestis, suggesting that microgravity condition can contribute the attenuated virulence. RNA-seq-based transcriptomics analysis showed that a total of 218 genes were differentially regulated, of which 91 upregulated and 127 downregulated. We found that dozens of virulence-associated genes were downregulated, which partially explained the reduced virulence of Y. pestis under SMG condition. Our study demonstrated that long-term exposure to SMG influences the pathogenesis and biofilm formation ability of Y. pestis, which provides a novel avenue to study the mechanism of physiology and virulence of this pathogen. Microgravity enhanced the ability of biofilm formation and reduced the virulence and cytotoxicity of Y. pestis. Many virulence-associated genes of Y. pestis were differentially regulated in response to the stimulated microgravity. However, there is no molecular evidence to explain the enhanced biofilm formation ability, which requires further research. Taken together, the phenotype changes of Y. pestis under SMG conditions can provide us a new research direction of its potential pathogenesis.
Previous analyses of grey and white matter volumes have reported that schizophrenia is associated with structural changes. Deep learning is a data-driven approach that can capture highly compact hierarchical non-linear relationships among high-dimensional features, and therefore can facilitate the development of clinical tools for making a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia.
To identify consistent grey matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, 662 people with schizophrenia and 613 healthy controls were recruited from eight centres across China, and the data from these independent sites were used to validate deep-learning classifiers.
We used a prospective image-based meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. We also automatically differentiated patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls using combined grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumetric features, incorporated a deep neural network approach on an individual basis, and tested the generalisability of the classification models using independent validation sites.
We found that statistically reliable schizophrenia-related grey matter abnormalities primarily occurred in regions that included the superior temporal gyrus extending to the temporal pole, insular cortex, orbital and middle frontal cortices, middle cingulum and thalamus. Evaluated using leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the performance of the classification of schizophrenia achieved by our findings from eight independent research sites were: accuracy, 77.19–85.74%; sensitivity, 75.31–89.29% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.797–0.909.
These results suggest that, by using deep-learning techniques, multidimensional neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia are capable of robustly discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, findings which could facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment in schizophrenia.
Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention.
360 psychosis patients aged 26–55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years.
Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001–0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004–0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year.
Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26–55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.
Bullfrog is one of the most important economic aquatic animals in China that is widely cultured in southern China and is a key breed recommended as an industry of poverty alleviation in China. During recent years, a fatal bacterial disease has often been found in cultured bullfrogs. The clinical manifestations of the diseased bullfrogs were severe intestinal inflammation and an anal prolapse. A bacterial pathogen was isolated from the diseased bullfrog intestines. The bacterium was identified as Vibrio cholerae using morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. In this study, V. cholerae was isolated and identified in diseased bullfrogs for the first time, providing a basis for the diagnosis and control of the disease. Therefore, attention should be paid to the modes of transmission of V. cholerae from bullfrog and formulate reasonable safety measures.