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This study examines secular changes in diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in younger and older Swedish adults, since the turn of this century.
Two cross-sectional health examination surveys were conducted in 2001–2004 (T1) and 2014–2018 (T2). At both times, an eighty-six-item FFQ was embedded in the survey. From the food frequencies and age-standardised portion sizes, GHGE estimates (kg CO2e/year) were calculated. GHGE was modelled as a function of time period and covariates, for five distinct age groups.
The municipality of Gothenburg, in western Sweden.
Women and men aged 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–75 years were randomly selected from the population registry and recruited for examinations. After exclusion of participants with incomplete dietary data, the analytic sample consisted of 2569 individuals at T1 and 2119 at T2.
Lower dietary GHGE scores were observed at T2 compared with T1, in each age group, adjusting for sex, BMI and education. The largest differences in GHGE were observed in the youngest age group (approximately 30 % reduction). Decreasing trends in GHGE from animal-based foods were observed at all ages and were accompanied by smaller increases from plant-based sources in younger groups only. At all ages, GHGE from discretionary foods decreased, and prevalence of overweight remained stable.
Optimal dietary trends should support both human health and planetary health. Our results suggest that Swedish adults have moved in this direction, e.g. through less intake of red meat products and stable weight status.
To describe the introduction of complementary foods in a population-based cohort in relation to recommendations and explore the possible impact of maternal education on infant feeding practices.
Prospective data from the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort study were used. The ABIS study invited all infants born in south-east Sweden during October 1997–October 1999 (n 21 700) to participate. A questionnaire was completed for 16 022 infants. During the infants’ first year parents continuously filed in a diary covering introduction of foods.
Infants (n 9727) with completed food diaries.
Potatoes, vegetables, fruits/berries and porridge were the foods first introduced, with a median introduction between 19 and 22 weeks, followed by introduction of meat, cow’s milk, follow-on formula and sour milk/yoghurt between 24 and 27 weeks. Early introduction of any food, before 16 weeks, occurred for 27 % of the infants and was more common in infants of mothers with low education. Overall, potatoes (14·7 %), vegetables (11·1 %), fruits/berries (8·5 %), porridge (7·4 %) and follow-on formula (2·7 %) were the foods most frequently introduced early. The majority of infants (≥70 %) were introduced to potatoes, vegetables, fruits/berries and porridge during concurrent breast-feeding, but introduction during concurrent breast-feeding was less common in infants of mothers with low education.
Most infants were introduced to complementary foods timely in relation to recommendations. Low maternal education was associated with earlier introduction of complementary foods and less introduction during concurrent breast-feeding. Still, the results indicated exposure to fewer foods at 12 months in infants of mothers with low education.
To evaluate plant sterol intake estimated with the eighty-four-item Northern Sweden FFQ against repeated 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) as the reference method.
Randomly recruited participants from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) responded to an FFQ (FFQ1). Over the subsequent 12 months, ten repeated 24-HDR were carried out. After this, a second FFQ (FFQ2) was completed.
Västerbotten county, northern Sweden.
Ninety-six men and ninety-nine women.
The Pearson correlation coefficient for absolute total plant sterol intake estimated with FFQ1 and 24-HDR was 0·58 and 0·55 for the men and women, respectively. Cross-classification of participants into quartiles of absolute plant sterol intake estimated with FFQ1 and 24-HDR showed that 90 % of the men and 83 % of the women were classified into the same or an adjacent quartile. For energy-adjusted plant sterol intake, 71 % of the men and 74 % of the women were classified into the same or an adjacent quartile. The agreement for cross-classification of participants into quartiles between FFQ1 and FFQ2 was good for both absolute and energy-adjusted plant sterol intake.
The FFQ is able to capture absolute plant sterol intake to the same extent as other nutrients, and to rank individuals according to both their absolute and energy-adjusted plant sterol intake. The reproducibility of the FFQ was good, suggesting that the method is reliable. This makes it possible to use plant sterol data from the FFQ in large-scale studies of the association between plant sterol intake and disease.
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