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In South Korea, the law concerning automated external defibrillators (AEDs) states that they should be installed in specific places including apartment complexes. This study was conducted to investigate the current status and effectiveness of installation and usage of AEDs in South Korea.
Installation and usage of AEDs in South Korea is registered in the National Emergency Medical Center (NEMC) database. Compared were the installed number, usage, and annual rate of AED use according to places of installation. All data were obtained from the NEMC database.
After excluding AEDs installed in ambulances or fire engines (n = 2,003), 36,498 AEDs were registered in South Korea from 1998 through 2018. A higher number of AEDs were installed in places required by the law compared with those not required by the law (20,678 [56.7%] vs. 15,820 [43.3%]; P <.001). Among them, 11,318 (31.0%) AEDs were installed in apartment complexes. The overall annual rate of AED use was 0.38% (95% CI, 0.33-0.44). The annual rate of AED use was significantly higher in places not required by the law (0.62% [95% CI, 0.52-0.72] versus 0.21% [95% CI, 0.16-0.25]; P <.001). The annual rate of AED use in apartment complexes was 0.13% (95% CI, 0.08-0.17).
There were significant mismatches between the number of installed AEDs and the annual rate of AED use among places. To optimize the benefit of AEDs in South Korea, changes in the policy for selecting AED placement are needed.
Sport participation is well known to promote health outcomes for children and adolescents. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence about the psychological and social outcomes of sport participation for older adults. This article provides the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social outcomes of sport participation for older adults. A systematic review of seven electronic databases was conducted and a total of 21 studies published that attended to psychological and/or social health benefits from sport participation of older adults (50 years old and over) were included. The outcomes of older adults’ sport participation included life satisfaction, depression, anxiety, stress, mood state, hedonistic values, socialisation, competition, and personal psychological outcomes such as personal empowerment, self-confidence, self-esteem and resistance to the negative view of ageing. Future studies are needed to conceptualise and operationalise the different levels of involvement of sport participation.
This study aimed to investigate associations among spirituality, coping strategies, quality of life (QOL), and the effects of depression and anxiety thereon in cancer patients.
In total, 237 cancer patients referred to a psycho-oncology clinic at a university hospital in Korea were enrolled. After identifying predictors of patient QOL in a stepwise regression model, we developed a hypothetical path model wherein interpersonal coping was considered as a mediating variable between spirituality (meaning/peace) and QOL and wherein depression and anxiety affected each of these three variables.
The direct effect of spirituality (meaning/peace) on QOL was 36.7%. In an indirect model, interpersonal coping significantly mediated the relationship between spirituality (meaning/peace) and QOL. Depression exerted the largest negative effect on spirituality (meaning/peace), interpersonal coping, and QOL. Anxiety had negative effects on spirituality (meaning/peace) and QOL, but a positive effect on interpersonal coping.
Significance of results
Interpersonal coping strategies work as a partial mediator of the relationship between meaning/peace subscales of spirituality and QOL. Effective management of depression may help in achieving better outcomes associated therewith. Greater attention and efforts to improve social connectedness and meaning of life in spiritual well-being may improve the QOL of cancer patients.
Given its diverse disease courses and symptom presentations, multiple phenotype dimensions with different biological underpinnings are expected with bipolar disorders (BPs). In this study, we aimed to identify lifetime BP psychopathology dimensions. We also explored the differing associations with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorders.
We included a total of 307 subjects with BPs in the analysis. For the factor analysis, we chose six variables related to clinical courses, 29 indicators covering lifetime symptoms of mood episodes, and 6 specific comorbid conditions. To determine the relationships among the identified phenotypic dimensions and their effects on differentiating BP subtypes, we applied structural equation modeling.
We selected a six-factor solution through scree plot, Velicer's minimum average partial test, and face validity evaluations; the six factors were cyclicity, depression, atypical vegetative symptoms, elation, psychotic/irritable mania, and comorbidity. In the path analysis, five factors excluding atypical vegetative symptoms were associated with one another. Cyclicity, depression, and comorbidity had positive associations, and they correlated negatively with psychotic/irritable mania; elation showed positive correlations with cyclicity and psychotic/irritable mania. Depression, cyclicity, and comorbidity were stronger in BP-II than in BP-I, and they contributed significantly to the distinction between the two disorders.
We identified six phenotype dimensions; in addition to symptom features of manic and depressive episodes, various comorbidities and high cyclicity constructed separate dimensions. Except for atypical vegetative symptoms, all factors showed a complex interdependency and played roles in discriminating BP-II from BP-I.
To evaluate the appropriateness of the screening strategy for healthcare personnel (HCP) during a hospital-associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation in 189 rRT-PCR–negative HCP exposed and assigned to MERS patients. Although 20%–25% of HCP experienced MERS-like symptoms, none of them showed seroconversion by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
We have carried out simultaneous 22 GHz H2O and 44 GHz Class I CH3OH maser line surveys of more than 1500 intermediate- and high-mass YSOs in the Galaxy using newly-constructed KVN 21-m telescopes. As the central (proto)stars evolve, the detection rates of the two masers rapidly decrease for intermediate-mass YSOs while the rates increase for high-mass YSOs. These results suggest that the occurrence of the two masers is closely related both to the evolutionary stage of the central objects and to the circumstellar environments. CH3OH masers always have very similar velocities (<10 km s−1) to the natal dense cores, whereas H2O masers often have significantly different velocities. The isotropic luminosities of both masers are well correlated with the bolometric luminosities of the central (proto)stars.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry ‘foreign’ DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic cell lines using bovine in vitro matured oocytes. Canine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with constructs containing the GFP and puromycin resistance genes using FuGENE 6®. Viability levels of these cells were determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos from normal or transfected cells were produced and cultured in vitro. The MTT measurement of GFP-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.25) was not significantly different from non-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.35). There was no difference between transgenic iSCNT versus non-transgenic iSCNT embryos in terms of fusion rates (73.1% and 75.7%, respectively), cleavage rates (69.7% vs. 73.8%) and development to the 8–16-cell stage (40.1% vs. 42.7%). Embryos derived from the transfected cells completely expressed GFP at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8–16-cell stages without mosaicism. In summary, our results demonstrated that, following successful isolation of canine transgenic cells, iSCNT embryos developed to early pre-implantation stages in vitro, showing stable GFP expression. These canine–bovine iSCNT embryos can be used for further in vitro analysis of canine transgenic cells and will contribute to the production of various transgenic dogs for use as specific human disease models.
The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains causing bloodstream infection (BSI) has not been studied in Korea.
We sought to determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA strains among isolates recovered from patients with MRSA BSIs and to explore epidemiological changes in Korea. We also sought to evaluate clinical characteristics relevant to the development of healthcare-associated BSIs.
We prospectively collected consecutive MRSA isolates from patients with BSI at 4 hospitals from July 1 through November 30, 2007, and we also included MRSA isolates recovered from culture of blood samples collected during a previous year (October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005) at a different hospital. Molecular typing studies were performed, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with healthcare-associated BSI due to CA-MRSA strains with those of patients with healthcare-associated BSI due to healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains.
There were 76 cases of MRSA BSI, of which 4 (5.3%) were community-associated and 72 (94.7%) were healthcare-associated. Among the 72 HA-MRSA BSIs, 18 (25%) were community onset, and 54 (75%) were hospital onset. PFGE type D-ST72–spa B-SCCmec type IVA MRSA, the predominant genotype of CA-MRSA in Korea, accounted for 19 (25%) of all 76 MRSA BSIs, including 17 (23.6%) of 72 HA-MRSA BSIs and 11 (20.8%) of 53 hospital-onset HA-MRSA BSIs. Patients with healthcare-associated BSIs due to CA-MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type IVA tended to have fewer healthcare-associated risk factors, compared with patients with healthcare-associated BSIs due to HA-MRSA strains carrying other SCCmec types. The presence of a central venous catheter or other invasive device was the only independent factor differentiating patients infected with hospital-associated genotype strains from patients infected with other strains. Clinical outcomes were similar between both groups.
CA-MRSA strains are emerging as a major cause of BSI in healthcare settings in Korea. This changing epidemiology of MRSA poses a challenge to public health and infection control in hospital settings.
The low frequency noise of individual ZnO nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) exposed to air is systematically characterized. The measured noise power spectrum shows a classical 1/f type. The noise amplitude is independent of source-drain current and inversely proportional to gate voltage. The extracted Hooge's constant of ZnO NW is found to be 6.52×10−3. In addition, the low frequency noise of ZnO NW according to NW resistance and contact property are investigated. The noise amplitude is proportional to the square of ZnO NW resistance. If a sample shows a nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristic due to a poor electrical contact, the noise power spectrum is proportional to the third power of current instead of the square of current.
Field effect transistors(FETs) made of ZnO nanowires are very sensitive to the gas environment, so that the passivation can be a good way to get reliable nanowire FETs with longer lifetime and the better mobility. The studies on the passivation effects with the positive electron-beam resist was investigated by selectively covering the part of nanowire devices between the electrodes. Reproducible electrical characteristics were recorded, reflecting the stable electrical properties by the passivation which deters the degradation of a device. Considering the defect states of oxide nanowires dominate the charge states, the pre-state just before the passivation process will be crucial to understand the reproducible and controllable device characteristics of nanowire devices.
The syntxhesis, photo-physics, and electroluminescence of new types of Iridium(III)-encapsulated dendrimers are described. Thus, four different iridium complexes [Ir(III)(C^N)2(LX), Blue-DCBP, Green-DCBP, Yellow-DCBP, and Red-DCBP] with ancillary ligand tethered to the CBP dendritic unit were synthesized and investigated for their photo-physical properties. A large enhancement in electroluminescence performance was observed by using these dendrimers as host/dopant hybrid materials in layered emitting diodes. In particular, host/dopant ratio can be systematically adjusted by varying dendritic generations. These results demonstrate that new Ir(III)-encapsulated dendrimers can be used as potential single-layer materials for organic light emitting diodes. Large difference in the intra-molecular charge transfer phosphorescence quantum yields and electroluminescence effiencies were observed among dendriritic generations.
Carbosilane dendrimers adorned with either triarylamine or carbazole units in their periphery exhibit novel electrochemical behavior in which the electrochemical deposition is controlled by dendrite generation. In addition, the deposited layers remained intact in the depositing solvent, methylene chloride, allowing a second layer to be deposited on top of the first layer. We have sought to establish the suitability of this electrochemical deposition technique for use in the construction of multi-layer OLEDs, which cannot be fabricated via conventional spin-coating with a polymeric precursor. Thus, the electrochemical deposition-based process could potentially offer an ideal combination of deposition control on the one hand and multi-layer fabrication on the other. We report herein the novel electrochemical deposition behavior of arylamine or carbazole end-capped carbosilane dendrimers of the type GnNPB or GnCBP (n = 1-4) and their use for the formation of multi-layer devices for OLEDs.
A mucin coat is deposited on rabbit embryos during passage through the oviduct; rabbit blastocysts cultured from the 1-cell stage in vitro have no mucin coat. When cultured blastocysts are transferred to recipients, the lack of mucin coat might account in part for subsequent failure of pregnancy. We have investigated the possibility that mucin coat deposition is induced following transfer of in vitro 72 h-cultured blastocysts to oviducts of asynchronous or synchronous recipients. One-cell embryos were collected by flushing oviducts 19–20 h post-coitus and were cultured in vitro for 72 h until they reached the blastocyst stage. The blastocysts were transferred to the oviducts of recipients that were synchronized either with the donors (synchronous) or 1 day later than the donors (asynchronous). They were recovered after 24–48 h and the mucin coat thickness and embryo degeneration rate were measured. The degeneration rate of blastocysts recovered from uteri of synchronous recipients was higher than that from asynchronous recipients (72.2% vs 40.0%). The mucin coats around embryos recovered from oviducts of asynchronous recipients after 48 h were thicker than those from synchronous recipients. More asynchronous recipients were pregnant and gave birth to more pups than synchronous recipients. These results indicate that the oviducts of asynchronous recipients secreted more mucin around the transferred embryos, causing higher rates of implantation of the in vitro-cultured blastocysts.
Silica slurry used as abrasives in wafer polishing process is made by dispersing silica particles in an alkali solution. Since commercially available colloidal or fumed silica particles need some modifications to be directly used as abrasive slurry due to their small sizes, irregular shapes or broad size distribution, we have prepared silica abrasives by particle growth of fumed silica or colloidal silica as seeds by sol-gel method. Silica slurries prepared by this step-wise growth from commercial seeds were tested using one-armed polisher for the comparison with commercial slurries and showed the performance comparable to commercial slurries. Microstructures of polishing slurries were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and ARES rheometer. From the result, stability of the slurry was found to be more important than the primary particle sizes for the polishing performance.
The effects of the addition of La2O3 (0.1 wt. %−1 wt. %) and MnO2 (0.1 wt. %−1 wt. %) on the piezoelectric properties of the 0.02Pb(Y2/3W1/3)O3−0.98Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 system were investigated to develop the composition available for an actuator. In the case of the addition of La2O3 to the system, the maximum values of d33 and kp were observed in the 0.1 wt. % La2O3, and the values of Qm did not change with the amount of La2O3. The values of d33, kp, and Qm were 428 × 10−12 C/N, 57%, and 71, respectively. On the other hand, the introduction of 0.5 wt. % MnO2 as an acceptor into the system resulted in the maximum Qm value of 741, exhibiting a d33 of 298 × 10−12 C/N, and a kp of 50%. In the case of the simultaneous addition of La2O3 and MnO2, the best piezoelectric properties are obtained from the composition of 0.02Pb(Y2/3W1/3)O3−0.98Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 + 0.1 wt. % La2O3 + 0.3 wt. % MnO2. The values of d33, kp, and Qm were 345 × 10−12 C/N, 55%, and 741, respectively.
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