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This chapter will increase your knowledge and awareness of literacy as one of the seven general capabilities in the Australian Curriculum to support your understanding of the function of literacy across the curriculum areas, such as in Science and Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS). The chapter explores the literacy general capability and looks at how it is designed to be incorporated into planning and teaching. It then looks at the use of strategies for writing genres, including the teaching and learning cycle, tiered vocabulary for word knowledge and vocabulary development, as well as some reading strategies for use with technical non-fiction texts. A further consideration for planning and implementation at the school and classroom level is also presented.
Children begin to make meaning from the moment they are born. Their emerging abilities to communicate are central to the development of their thinking and imaginations; expression of their feelings and emotions; access to their cultural heritage(s); and, growth of their own unique identities. Learning how to mean and becoming literate continues to be critically important in shaping children and young people’s life chances. Yet it does not follow the same pattern for all children and cannot be reduced to a simple, linear hierarchy of skills (Ewing, 2020) or a one-size-fits-all approach to teaching those skills. Perhaps, because of its centrality to our lives and learning, becoming literate remains a complex and challenging area in education, broadly, but particularly in the primary classroom, where it is riddled with controversy. This book is underpinned by research and practice and reflects our serious commitment to every child’s entitlement to a rich and creative English and literacies education in the primary classroom.
Throughout this chapter you will gain knowledge and understanding of literacies education in the Australian context. This includes insight into Australian education policy and research contexts via the Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration and the Melbourne Declaration. With a lens on the context of curriculum in Australia and the Australian Curriculum, this chapter guides your knowledge around the policy drivers, including the basis of the Australian economic and international benchmarking test National Assessment Plan – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN).
This chapter presents insights about literacies education in the Australian context and includes an historical perspective on education policy and the Australian Curriculum. The evolution of the national Declarations are discussed together with how the goals of education in Australia are defined. The education of young Australians in 21st century learning and the structure of the Australian Curriculum: English and the Australian Curriculum Literacy as a general capability are explored. The learning progressions designed to engage all Australians in lifelong learning through the developmental continuum of literacy from emergent to adult are also presented.
Throughout the chapter, we engage with content that considers the benefits of fostering literacy engagement in the home and how effective parent and caregiver engagement will occur when a school culture is based on trust and open communication. The chapter discusses how school settings can go about developing a positive learning culture that supports all cohorts of parents and caregivers specific to a school context.
The chapter then explores the wider education department organisation of literacy support networks, including working with professionals such as speech pathologists and school-based literacy specialists. It considers the more recent English/literacy specialisation for graduate teachers. The content also considers the role of school-based libraries and other external community networks such as homework clubs.
Many children seem to learn to talk effortlessly, perhaps because they are treated as meaning-makers from the moment they are born. As Alexander writes, talk plays a powerful role in a child’s learning and yet, sometimes once a child can talk, we pay little attention to the ongoing development of speaking and active listening. This chapter begins by focusing on how children become competent oral communicators in the home, in early childhood contexts and at school. The central role of storying and storytelling in learning both language and culture, including the role of oral narrative in Australia’s First Nations cultures, is also considered in helping us understand why oracy underpins learning to read and write. This chapter documents how speaking and listening are represented in both the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) and the Australian Curriculum: English. Finally, a range of teaching and learning instructional strategies that foster the ongoing development of children’s speaking and listening are explored.
Being literate in the twenty-first century means being an empowered receiver, user and creator of diverse text types communicated across multiple and rapidly changing modalities. English and Literacies: Learning to make meaning in primary classrooms is an accessible resource that introduces pre-service teachers to the many facets of literacies and English education for primary students. Addressing the requirements of the Australian Curriculum and the Early Years Learning Framework, English and Literacies explores how students develop oracy and literacy. Reading, viewing and writing are discussed alongside the importance of children's literature. Taking an inclusive and positive approach to teaching and learning for all students, it explores the creation of texts using spelling, grammar in context and handwriting/keyboarding skills, as well as the need for authentic assessment and reporting. Finally, the text explores the importance of literacy partnerships and how teachers can address literacy challenges across the curriculum.
The rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the prerequisite for adverse cardiovascular events. Calcification morphology plays a critical role in plaque stability, therefore accurate calcification classification is essential for favourable patient management. Blood biomarkers may be a worthwhile approach to stratify patients based on calcification phenotype. Vitamin K-dependent Matrix γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential utility of circulating non-functional MGP (dp-ucMGP) measurements to determine arterial stiffness and calcification levels. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between circulating dp-ucMGP and calcification phenotype within symptomatic atherosclerotic lesions. Consenting patients undergoing standard endarterectomy procedures were recruited (n = 29). Fasting venous blood was collected preoperatively. Circulating plasma levels of dp-ucMGP were quantified using the inaKtif MGP (dp-ucMGP) iSYS kit. A bicinchoninic acid assay was used to standardise the total protein content present in each sample. High-resolution micro-CT imaging was conducted on the excised atherosclerotic specimens postoperatively. ImageJ post-processing was used to accurately quantify the calcification volume (≥ 130 Hounsfield Units) and determine the total number of calcified particles (3D objects counter plugin). Thirteen carotid (average age 71 years, 9 male) and fourteen peripheral lower limb (average age 65 years, 12 male) patients were examined. One patient had a carotid and a peripheral lower limb plaque (age 79, male). Peripheral lower limb specimens have larger volumes of calcification and higher numbers of calcified particles than carotid samples (472 ± 310 vs 85 ± 113mm3, p < 0.0005; 13919 ± 16034 vs 3476 ± 6208, p = 0.061.) While a higher dp-ucMGP value was noted in carotid than peripheral lower limb patients (214 ± 52 vs 169 ± 36pmol/L, p = 0.014) there was no correlation between circulating dp-ucMGP and calcification volume or number of calcified particles (rs = -0.329 and rs = 0.046). Previous research also found that peripheral lower limb lesions contain higher volumes of calcification than carotid lesions. There is currently no published data on calcified particle comparisons. Patients with symptomatic carotid disease are assumed to have a degree of peripheral arterial disease, this could explain the higher levels of circulating dp-ucMGP in carotid patients. The current study did not examine the dietary patterns of individuals with regards to Vitamin K intake or analyse other areas of the vasculature for additional calcification. This may interfere with dp-ucMGP measurements. This study serves as a preliminary investigation into the potential of dp-ucMGP as a blood based biomarker to distinguish between symptomatic atherosclerotic calcification phenotypes.
High fat dairy products, such as butter and margarine can be contaminated during the milk production process with a residue called Trichloromethane (TCM), which results from the use of chlorine based detergent solutions. Although, TCM concentrations in Irish products are not at levels that are a public health issue, such contamination can cause marketing difficulties in countries to which Irish products are being exported. In an attempt to reduce such milk residues, a template procedure was developed, tried and tested on 43 farms (from 3 processing companies). This involved identifying farms with high TCM milk, applying corrective action in the form of advice and recommendations to reduce TCM and re-measuring milks from these farms. Trichloromethane in milk was measured by head-space gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The TCM reduction strategy proved successful in significantly reducing the levels in milk in the farms tested, e.g. TCM was reduced from 0·006 to the target of 0·002 mg/kg (P < 0·05). The strategy was then applied to farms who supplied milk to six Irish dairy processors with the objective of reducing TCM in those milks to a level of ⩽0·002 mg/kg. Initially, milk tankers containing milks from approximately 10–15 individual farms were sampled and analysed and tankers with high TCM (>0·002 mg/kg) identified. Individual herd milks contributing to these tankers were subsequently sampled and analysed and farms supplying high TCM identified. Guidance and advice was provided to the high TCM milk suppliers and levels of TCM of these milk supplies were monitored subsequently. A significant reduction (minimum P < 0·05) in milk TCM was observed in 5 of the 6 dairy processor milks, while a numerical reduction in TCM was observed in the remaining processor milk.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative susceptibility of LDL in human volunteers following supplementation with various low doses (<1 g/d) of n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Sixty-two healthy volunteers (thirty-seven males and twenty-five females, aged 19–63 years) were recruited to take part in a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Volunteers were required to take 0.9, 0.6 or 0.3 g n–3 PUFA as fish oil or placebo capsules daily for 16 weeks. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification was assessed by measuring the production of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in LDL oxidised by Cu2+ (15 μM) OR 2,2″-AZOBIS(2-AMIDINOPROPANE) DIHYDROCHLORIDE (1 Mm) for 5 h. Plasma fatty acid and LDL-fatty acid composition, cholesterol levels and antioxidant concentrations were also measured. While post-treatment n–3 PUFA compositions of plasma and LDL reflected the capsule contents, no meaningful differences in antioxidant concentrations or cholesterol levels were observed between the groups. Supplementation with low doses of n–3 PUFA as fish oil did not influence the oxidative susceptibility of LDL. The results of the present study suggest that moderate dietary intakes of n–3 PUFA do not significantly influence the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in vitro.
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