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An aerofoil leading-edge profile based on wavy (sinusoidal) protuberances/tubercles is investigated to understand the mechanisms by which they are able to reduce the noise produced through the interaction with turbulent mean flow. Numerical simulations are performed for non-lifting flat-plate aerofoils with straight and wavy leading edges (denoted by SLE and WLE, respectively) subjected to impinging turbulence that is synthetically generated in the upstream zone (free-stream Mach number of 0.24). Full three-dimensional Euler (inviscid) solutions are computed for this study thereby eliminating self-noise components. A high-order accurate finite-difference method and artefact-free boundary conditions are used in the current simulations. Various statistical analysis methods, including frequency spectra, are implemented to aid the understanding of the noise-reduction mechanisms. It is found with WLEs, unlike the SLE, that the surface pressure fluctuations along the leading edge exhibit a significant source-cutoff effect due to geometric obliqueness which leads to reduced levels of radiated sound pressure. It is also found that there exists a phase interference effect particularly prevalent between the peak and the hill centre of the WLE geometry, which contributes to the noise reduction in the mid- to high-frequency range.
The diagnosis and treatment of cancer in pregnant women is a clinical and ethical challenge for medical care workers. The complex medical, ethical, psychological, and religious issues arising in pregnant women with cancer demand care from a multidisciplinary team with obstetricians, oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgeons, pediatricians, geneticists, and psychologists. Surgery can be performed safely during pregnancy. The placenta seems to fulfill its barrier role for most of the chemotherapeutic drugs and reduces fetal exposure to chemotherapy. Radiation doses used in cancer therapy are in the range 30-70 Gy. Biological agents have the potential to affect the fetus and should be used with caution during pregnancy. Supportive treatment for pregnant women is possible, similar to non-pregnant women. Considering the gestational period, surgery, chemotherapy (not in the first trimester), and radiotherapy (not in the third trimester) can safely be applied in pregnancy. Hormonal therapy and trastuzumab should be deferred until after birth.