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Recent genetic, isotopic and linguistic research has dramatically changed our understanding of how the Corded Ware Culture in Europe was formed. Here the authors explain it in terms of local adaptations and interactions between migrant Yamnaya people from the Pontic-Caspian steppe and indigenous North European Neolithic cultures. The original herding economy of the Yamnaya migrants gradually gave way to new practices of crop cultivation, which led to the adoption of new words for those crops. The result of this hybridisation process was the formation of a new material culture, the Corded Ware Culture, and of a new dialect, Proto-Germanic. Despite a degree of hostility between expanding Corded Ware groups and indigenous Neolithic groups, stable isotope data suggest that exogamy provided a mechanism facilitating their integration. This article should be read in conjunction with that by Heyd (2017, in this issue).
Two cores from the southwestern shelf and slope of Storfjorden, Svalbard, taken at 389 m and 1485 m water depth have been analyzed for benthic and planktic foraminifera, oxygen isotopes, and ice-rafted debris. The results show that over the last 20,000 yr, Atlantic water has been continuously present on the southwestern Svalbard shelf. However, from 15,000 to 10,000 14C yr BP, comprising the Heinrich event H1 interval, the Bølling–Allerød interstades and the Younger Dryas stade, it flowed as a subsurface water mass below a layer of polar surface water. In the benthic environment, the shift to interglacial conditions occurred at 10,000 14C yr BP. Due to the presence of a thin upper layer of polar water, surface conditions remained cold until ca. 9000 14C yr BP, when the warm Atlantic water finally appeared at the surface. Neither extensive sea ice cover nor large inputs of meltwater stopped the inflow of Atlantic water. Its warm core was merely submerged below the cold polar surface water.
Rasmussen KG, Stevens SR, Kung S, Mohan A. Melancholic symptoms as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and outcomes with and without electroconvulsive therapy on an in-patient mood disorders unit.
We investigated whether 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HamD24)-based melancholia ratings correlated with treatment outcome, with special focus on whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was used in depressed patients treated on an in-patient mood disorders unit.
We analysed the data on ECT- versus non-ECT-treated patients' outcomes relative to melancholia subscale scores. Two HamD24-based melancholia rating scale scores were computed for 201 depressed in-patients at admission and discharge. Baseline melancholia ratings were analysed to see if they correlated with improvement in total HamD24 scores. We also tested to see if the melancholia subscales followed unimodal or bimodal distributions.
Melancholic symptoms as assessed by one of the HamD24-based subscales directly correlated with overall improvement. Although ECT treatment was associated with greater improvement than was noted in non-ECT-treated patients, severity of melancholia ratings did not affect this relationship. Finally, both melancholia subscale scores followed approximately unimodal distributions.
HamD24-based methods to assess severity of melancholic symptoms have limited clinical utility on an in-patient mood disorders unit in general, and for predicting ECT response in particular. Furthermore, these methods do not seem to identify bimodal populations of depressed patients (i.e. melancholic vs. non-melancholic).
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