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Shark remains are common in coastal archaeological sites in southern Brazil. Here we present an analysis of microwear visible on shark teeth found at the Rio do Meio site in Florianópolis, Brazil. It demonstrates that hafted shark teeth were used to work soft materials such as leather, as well as semihard materials such as wood and bone, whereas others probably functioned as arrowheads. The results also show a possible preference for tiger shark teeth use for woodworking. The identified technical motions include piercing, cutting, and scraping, as well as scaling and sawing. These findings allow us to question the common interpretation of shark teeth use as ornaments and as having symbolic value. Instead, shark teeth seem to have been used as tools and weapons in daily life.
This chapter examines how, in the Commedia, Dante presents knowledge of all kinds, about God, the universe, and humankind, as well as about the place of humans in relation to one another, love, the cosmic order, and the divine. Its primary aim is to illustrate how Dante brings these and related concerns into the narrative, language, themes, and ultimate messages of the poem.
This newly commissioned volume presents a focused overview of Dante's masterpiece, the Commedia, offering readers of today wide-ranging insights into the poem and its core features. Leading scholars discuss matters of structure, narrative, language and style, characterization, doctrine, and politics, in chapters that make their own contributions to Dante criticism by raising problems and questions that call for renewed attention, while investigating contextual concerns as well as the current state of criticism about the poem. The Commedia is also placed in a variety of cultural and historical contexts through accounts of the poem's transmission and reception that explore both its contemporary influence and its continuing legacy today. With its accessible approach, its unstinting focus on the poem and its attention to matters that have not always received adequate critical assessment, this volume will be of value to all students and scholars of Dante's great poem.
Bioactive molecules isolated from plants are promising sources for the development of new therapies against leishmaniasis. We investigated the leishmanicidal activity of cariphenone A (1), isouliginosin B (2) and uliginosin B (3) isolated from Hypericum species. Promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis were incubated with compounds 1–3 at concentrations 1–100 µm for 48 h. The anti-promastigote effect of compounds was also tested in combinations. The cytotoxicity against macrophages and human erythrocytes were determined using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and hemolysis assay, respectively. The compounds 1–3 showed high leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes, IC50 values of 10.5, 17.5 and 11.3 µm, respectively. Synergistic interactions were found to the associations of compounds 1 and 2 [Σ fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) = 0.41], and 2 and 3 (ΣFIC = 0.28) on promastigotes. All Hypericum compounds induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and reactive oxygen species production in promastigotes. The compounds showed low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells, high selectivity index and killed intracellular amastigotes probably mediated by oxidative stress. These results indicate that these compounds are promising candidates for the development of drugs against leishmaniasis.