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Delirium is very frequent in older patients presenting to the emergency department (ED), but is often undetected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the French version of the 4 A’s Test (4AT-F) for the detection of delirium and cognitive impairment in older patients.
The study was conducted in four Canadian ED. Participants (n= 320) were independent or semi-independent patients (able to perform ≥5 activities of daily living) aged 65 and older and had an 8-hour exposure to the ED environment. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m), the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) as well as the 4AT-F were administered to patients at the initial interview. The CAM and 4AT-F were then administered twice a day during the patients’ ED or hospital stay. The 4AT-F’s sensitivity and specificity were compared to those of the CAM (for delirium), and to that of the TICS (for cognitive impairment).
Our results suggest that the 4AT-F has a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI: [76, 93]) and a specificity of 74% (95% CI: [70, 78]) for delirium, as well as a sensitivity of 49% (95% CI: [34, 64]) and a specificity of 87% (95% CI: [82, 92]) for cognitive impairment.
The 4AT-F is a fast and reliable screening tool for delirium and cognitive impairment in ED. Due to its quick administration time, it allows a systematic screening of patients at risk of delirium, without significantly increasing the workload of the ED staff.
In the fast pace of the Emergency Department (ED), clinicians are in need of tailored screening tools to detect seniors who are at risk of adverse outcomes. We aimed to explore the usefulness of the Bergman-Paris Question (BPQ) to expose potential undetected geriatric syndromes in community-living seniors presenting to the ED.
This is a planned sub-study of the INDEED multicentre prospective cohort study, including independent or semi-independent seniors (≥65 years old) admitted to hospital after an ED stay ≥8 hours and who were not delirious. Patients were assessed using validated screening tests for 3 geriatric syndromes: cognitive and functional impairment, and frailty. The BPQ was asked upon availability of a relative at enrolment. BPQ’s sensitivity and specificity analyses were used to ascertain outcomes.
A response to the BPQ was available for 171 patients (47% of the main study’s cohort). Of this number, 75.4% were positive (suggesting impairment), and 24.6% were negative. To detect one of the three geriatric syndromes, the BPQ had a sensitivity of 85.4% (95% CI [76.3, 92.0]) and a specificity of 35.4% (95% CI [25.1, 46.7]). Similar results were obtained for each separate outcome. Odds ratio demonstrated a higher risk of presence of geriatric syndromes.
The Bergman-Paris Question could be an ED screening tool for possible geriatric syndrome. A positive BPQ should prompt the need of further investigations and a negative BPQ possibly warrants no further action. More research is needed to validate the usefulness of the BPQ for day-to-day geriatric screening by ED professionals or geriatricians.
The consequences of minor trauma involving a head injury (MT-HI) in independent older adults are largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of a head injury on the functional outcomes six months post-injury in older adults who sustained a minor trauma.
This multicenter prospective cohort study in eight sites included patients who were aged 65 years or older, previously independent, presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a minor trauma, and discharged within 48 hours. To assess the functional decline, we used a validated test: the Older Americans’ Resources and Services Scale. The cognitive function of study patients was also evaluated. Finally, we explored the influence of a concomitant injury on the functional decline in the MT-HI group.
All 926 eligible patients were included in the analyses: 344 MT-HI patients and 582 minor trauma without head injury. After six months, the functional decline was similar in both groups: 10.8% and 11.9%, respectively (RR=0.79 [95% CI: 0.55–1.14]). The proportion of patients with mild cognitive disabilities was also similar: 21.7% and 22.8%, respectively (RR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.71–1.18]). Furthermore, for the group of patients with a MT-HI, the functional outcome was not statistically different with or without the presence of a co-injury (RR=1.35 [95% CI: 0.71–2.59]).
This study did not demonstrate that the occurrence of a MT-HI is associated with a worse functional or cognitive prognosis than other minor injuries without a head injury in an elderly population, six months after injury.
Notre objectif primaire est de mesurer l’incidence d’HPI selon quatre définitions différentes retrouvées dans la littérature. Notre principal objectif secondaire est d’évaluer l’impact de la présence d’instabilité hémodynamique avant l’intubation sur l’incidence d’HPI. Le deuxième objectif secondaire consiste à déterminer l’incidence de l’HPI en fonction de l’intervalle de temps durant lequel la première hypotension survient.
Une cohorte prospective a été constituée par les patients intubés en salle de réanimation à l’hôpital de l’Enfant-Jésus entre le 28/06/2011 et le 12/07/2012. L’HPI était globalement définie comme ≥1 mesure de tension artérielle systolique <90 mmHg suivant l’intubation. Les différentes définitions étudiées faisaient varier le temps de mesure de la tension artérielle (TA) après l’intubation, soit 1) jusqu’à 5 minutes, 2) jusqu’à 15 minutes, 3) jusqu’à 30 minutes et 4) en tout temps lors du séjour en salle de réanimation.
Au cours de la période à l’étude, 155 patients ont été intubés sur place dont 81 patients qui répondaient aux critères d’inclusion. L’incidence de l’HPI pour chaque définition est respectivement de 9.9%, 18.5%, 24.7% et 28.4%. La comparaison entre chacune de ces incidences révèle une différence statistiquement significative (p<0.05), à l’exception des deux dernières. L’incidence cumulative d’HPI à tout moment suivant l’intubation chez les patients présentant une hypotension pré-intubation est de 62.5% (IC 95% 28.5-87.5) en opposition aux patients hémodynamiquement stables en pré-intubation qui présentaient une incidence d’HPI de 24.7% (IC 95% 16.1-35.8).
L’hypotension post-intubation est un effet indésirable fréquent chez les patients au département d’urgence et son incidence varie de façon significative en fonction de la définition temporelle utilisée au sein d’une même cohorte de patients.
Objective: In a previous study, we assembled a multidisciplinary Canadian panel and identified 37 International Classification of Diseases-10-Canada Diagnosis Groups (DGs) for which emergency department (ED) management may potentially reduce mortality (emergency-sensitive conditions). Before using these 37 DGs to calculate a hospital standardized mortality ratio (HSMR) specific to emergency care, we aimed to test their face validity with ED care providers.
Methods: We conducted a self-administered web survey among Canadian emergency physicians and nurses between November 22 and December 31, 2012. All members (N=2,507) of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians and the National Emergency Nurses Association were surveyed. They were asked to agree or disagree (binary response) with the panel classification for each of the 37 DG emergency-sensitive conditions identified and provide free text responses to identify missing entities.
Results: A total of 719 ED providers (719 of 2,507, 29%) completed the survey, of whom 470 were physicians (470 of 1,407, 33%) and 232 were nurses (232 of 1,100, 21%). Information on professional status was not provided for 17 respondents. Of 37 DGs, 32 (e.g., A41 sepsis) were rated by more than 80% of respondents to be emergency-sensitive conditions. The remaining five DGs (e.g., E11 type 2 diabetes mellitus) were rated by 68.5 to 79.7% of the respondents to be emergency-sensitive conditions. Respondents suggested an additional 31 emergency-sensitive diagnoses.
Conclusion: We identified 37 emergency-sensitive DGs that had high face validity with emergency physicians and nurses, which will enable the calculation of an ED-HSMR.
Nanostructuring has been the foremost approach to the manufacture of high-performance thermoelectric materials for nearly a decade. This study explores a novel nanostructuring technique, attrition-enhanced nanocomposite synthesis, in maximum indium-filled, iron-substituted cobalt antimonide skutterudites. In0.3Fe0.8Co3.2Sb12 was synthesized and subjected to varying degrees of mechanical attrition (via ball milling). These samples exhibited increased indium precipitation coincident with the duration of mechanical attrition. Indium readily diffused through the skutterudite crystal structure and rapidly precipitated forming 20-50 nm-sized indium-rich inclusions during sintering.
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