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Effective monitoring of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) competence depends on psychometrically robust assessment methods. While the UK Cognitive Therapy Scale – Revised (CTS-R; Blackburn et al., 2001) has become a widely used competence measure in CBT training, practice and research, its underlying factor structure has never been investigated.
This study aimed to present the first investigation into the factor structure of the CTS-R based on a large sample of postgraduate CBT trainee recordings.
Trainees (n = 382) provided 746 mid-treatment audio recordings for depression (n = 373) and anxiety (n = 373) cases scored on the CTS-R by expert markers. Tapes were split into two equal samples counterbalanced by diagnosis and with one tape per trainee. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted. The suggested factor structure and a widely used theoretical two-factor model were tested with confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was assessed by diagnostic group (depression versus anxiety).
Exploratory factor analysis suggested a single-factor solution (98.68% explained variance), which was supported by confirmatory factor analysis. All 12 CTS-R items were found to contribute to this single factor. The univariate model demonstrated full metric invariance and partial scalar invariance by diagnosis, with one item (item 10 – Conceptual Integration) demonstrating scalar non-invariance.
Findings indicate that the CTS-R is a robust homogenous measure and do not support division into the widely used theoretical generic versus CBT-specific competency subscales. Investigation into the CTS-R factor structure in other populations is warranted.
Meeting patients’ needs is of great importance for ensuring quality of life and reducing social disability in severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, the degree of agreement between patients and their therapists in the assessment of needs warrants further investigation, regarding that high patient-therapist agreement is associated with improved outcomes.
Current symptomatology might differentially affect the self-report and clinician-rated appraisal of schizophrenia patients’ needs.
To examine the potential impact of current symptoms on patients’ and therapists’ assessment of patients’ needs.
Fifty-three schizophrenia patient–staff pairs were interviewed using the Greek research version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN-R). Patients’ symptom severity was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
The degree of agreement between staff and patients in the assessment of needs was high. Significant correlations were found between the total number of needs and all the dimensions of PANSS (positive, negative, general psychopathology) in the staff group but not in the patient group. In both groups, the total number of unmet needs was significantly correlated with the general psychopathology and the total PANSS scores.
The constancy of the therapeutic context might contribute to a high rate of agreement between patients and staff about needs of the latter. The severity of symptoms may influence clinicians’ assessment of schizophrenia patients’ needs. Nevertheless, according to both patients’ and therapists’ assessments symptom severity is associated with greater number of unmet needs.
Envy is depicted as motivating destructive desires and actions intended to spoil or destroy that which is envied.
To develop a new valid and reliable measure of malicious envy (C-BRES), which included items representing the cognitive, emotional and behavioural responses empirically associated with this emotion.
A total of 203 adults completed the new 22-item cognitive and behavioural responses to envy scale (C-BRES). Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to test for reliability and internal consistency of the C-BRES. Evidence towards the concurrent construct validity (convergent and discriminant) of the C-BRES was assessed through correlations with the Dispositional envy scale and other measures of psychosocial outcomes empirically linked to envy.
Factor analysis for categorical data identified five dimensions of envy, namely: injustice, hostility, malicious action tendencies, malicious feelings and behavioural responses. The reliability indices of the five factors and the total scale were satisfactory (>0.85). Evidence towards the concurrent construct validity (convergent and discriminant) of the C-BRES is reported. In particular, envy was associated with higher levels of depression, psychoticism, neuroticism, anger and lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life.
All findings support the psychometric adequacy of the C-BRES.
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