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To examine relationships between frequency of adolescents eating alone (dependent variable) and diet, weight status and perceived food-related parenting practices (independent variables).
Analyses of publicly available, cross-sectional, web-based survey data from adolescents.
Online consumer opinion panel.
A US nationwide sample of adolescents (12–17 years) completed Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study surveys to report demographic and family meal characteristics, weight, dietary intake, home food availability and perceptions of parenting practices. Parents provided information about demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations between variables.
About 20 % of adolescents reported often eating alone (n 343) v. not often eating alone (n 1309). Adjusted odds of adolescents often eating alone were significantly higher for non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic White adolescents (OR=1·7) and for overweight or obese compared with normal- or underweight adolescents (OR=1·6). Adjusted odds of adolescents eating alone were significantly lower for those who reported that fruits and vegetables were often/always available in the home (OR=0·65), for those who perceived that parents had expectations about fruit and vegetable intake (OR=0·71) and for those who agreed with parental authority to make rules about intake of junk food/sugary drinks (OR=0·71). Junk food and sugary drink daily intake frequency was positively associated with often eating alone.
Often eating alone was related to being overweight/obese, having less healthy dietary intake and perceptions of less supportive food-related parenting practices.
To evaluate the 137-item Utah Picture-sort Food-frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in the measurement of usual dietary intake in older adults.
The picture-sort FFQ was administered at baseline and again one year later. Three seasonal 24-hour dietary recall interviews were collected during the year between the two FFQs. Mean nutrient intakes were compared between methods and between administrations of the FFQ.
The FFQ interviews were administered in respondents' homes or care-centres. The 24-hour diet recalls were conducted by telephone interview on random days of the week.
Two-hundred-and-eight men and women aged 55–84 years were recruited by random sample of controls from a case–control study of nutrition and bone health in Utah.
After adjustment for total energy intake, median Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the two picture-sort FFQs were 0.69 for men aged ≤69 years, 0.66 for men aged >69 years; and 0.68 for women aged ≤69 years, 0.67 for women aged >69 years. Median correlation coefficients between methods were 0.50 for men ≤69 years old, 0.52 for men >69 years old; 0.55 for women ≤69 years old, 0.46 for women >69 years old.
We report intake correlations between methods and administrations comparable to those reported in the literature for traditional paper-and-pencil FFQs and one other picture-sort method of FFQ. This dietary assessment method may improve ease and accuracy of response in this and other populations with low literacy levels, poor memory skill, impaired hearing, or poor vision.
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