To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Information on efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with dementia is sparse. The current case report describes a patient suffering from severe depression and dementia who received electroconvulsive therapy with S-ketamine anesthesia at our psychiatric intensive care unit for the treatment of her therapy-resistant catatonic stupor. The patient's condition improved remarkably through the treatment. By the end of 16 electroconvulsive therapy sessions, her catatonic symptoms remitted entirely, her affect was brighter and she performed markedly better at the cognitive testing.
A wide range of materials and material combinations, from hard and brittle to soft and elastic, is now available for the design of ultraflexible organic electronic circuits. Potential applications range from large-area active-matrix sensor arrays to displays, usable in next-generation smart appliances for mobile health, sports, and well-being. Weight and flexibility dominate the mechanical response and perception of such electronic skins, and have been developed into key figures of merit in circuit design. We review the design of thin (0.3–3 µm), ultralight (0.7–6 g/m2) large-area “imperceptible” electronic foils employing low-cost fabrication techniques compatible with mass production.
Electronics can be made on elastically stretchable “skin.” Such skins conform to irregularly curved surfaces and carry arrays of thin-film devices and integrated circuits. Laypeople and scientists intuitively grasp the concept of electronic skins; material scientists then ask “what materials are used?” and “how does it work?” Stretchable circuits are made of diverse materials that span more than 12 orders of magnitude in elastic modulus. We begin with a brief overview of the materials and the architecture of stretchable electronics, then we discuss stretchable substrates, encapsulation, interconnects, and the fabrication of devices and circuits. These components and techniques provide the tools for creating new concepts in biocompatible circuits that conform to and stretch with living tissue. They enable wireless energy transfer via stretchable antennas, stretchable solar cells that convert sunlight to electricity, supercapacitors, and batteries that store energy in stretchable electronic devices. We conclude with a brief outlook on the technical challenges for this revolutionary technology on its road to functional stretchable electronic systems.
Flexible and stretchable electronic components are currently at the heart of macroelectronics research. Materials useful for such applications are based on entropy elastic soft matter, combined with energy elastic functional elements. Examples include functional materials for sensing pressure and temperature changes, such as ferroelectrets, ferroelectric polymers, and nanocomposites of ferroelectric polymers and piezoelectric ceramics. Components for making flexible or stretchable electronic components additionally require electronic circuitry based on amorphous silicon or on organic semiconductors. Progress in such electronic elements is rapid, state of the art are elements which can easily operate at low voltage levels of 1 V. Combined with functional materials, sensing elements for temperature and pressure changes are easily achieved, as demonstrated with a few working examples of paper thin microphones, optothermal switching elements and skin-like electronics. Entropy-elastic elastomers form the basis for actuating elements, outlined by examples based on self organized actuating structures. Such materials can be also made functional by design, enabling fully reversible stretchable sensing elements for temperature, pressure and other physical parameters.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a water based dielectric often used as a coating layer in paper industry. Due to its water solubility PVA is also interesting as gate insulator in organic field effect transistors. Depending on the preparation of the PVA gate, transistors with and without hysteresis can be produced, with applications in organic electronic circuits or memory elements. In the production of PVA, a major side product is sodium acetate, an ionic salt not completely removed during industrial purification. Such ionic impurities likely influence the hysteresis in PVA based organic field effect transistors. While a hysteresis is desirable in memory elements it is unwanted in transistors for electronic circuits. Ways to prepare transistors with a desired transfer characteristic are described, for example by using electronic grade products directly from the purchaser of PVA, or by employing PVA purified by means of dialysis. Measurements are performed with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures and organic field effect transistors (OFETs), where Buckminsterfullerene C60 is employed as organic semiconductor.
Landraces (LRs) are important as a source of novel alleles for crop improvement, and their conservation is therefore necessary for food security. These genetic resources have suffered continuous erosion, especially in more accessible areas. We assess the loss of Nepali rice LRs and identify the factors influencing the probability of cultivating the most dominant LR via a logistic regression model. The majority of farmers cultivate LRs and modern varieties simultaneously. However, there has been a decrease in varietal diversity and a loss of some LRs over recent years, mainly because of their low yield, their sensitivity to diseases and pests, and their late maturity. The opportunity cost of maintaining the Satha landrace is higher on irrigated farms and for those farmers specializing in niche products. On the other hand, Satha is more likely to be cultivated by large-scale farmers and by those having a religious and/or a cultural attachment to this LR. Market-based incentives are less costly than publicly funded conservation programmes, and the superior taste of some LRs may allow them to be developed as niche products. However, to achieve this, public investment is needed to generate the necessary support infrastructure. In the more accessible Terai region, there is a particular need to introduce a flexible incentive mechanism to maintain LRs and to offset the negative effect of development intervention.
The science and technology of piezoelectric polymers has long been dominated by ferroelectric polymers from the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) family. The piezoelectricity in this polymer class arises from the strong molecular dipoles within the polymer chain and from the resulting change of the dipole density upon application of a mechanical stimulus. Ferroelectric polymers show moderate piezoelectric coefficients (d33 and d31,32 around 20-30 pC/N) in comparison to ceramic piezoelectrics, with an acoustic impedance comparable to that of water. The thermal stability of the piezoelectric effect is limited to below 100°C, though stability up to 125°C has recently been announced. Applications of ferroelectric polymers emerged in many niches. A good example of a success story for PVDF applications are clamp-on transducers used as pressure sensor for Diesel injection lines, with selling numbers over 50 million pieces per year. A relatively new development are relaxor ferroelectric polymers, based on electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) trifluoroethylene copolymers or on terpolymers of vinylidene fluoride, trifluoroethylene and chlorofluoroethylene. Relaxor ferroelectric copolymers exhibit strong electrostriction and thus large piezoelectric coefficients, when used under electric dc-bias fields. Internally charged cellular polymer foam electrets (ferroelectrets) resemble close similarities to ferroelectrics. They display large intrinsic piezoelectric d33-coefficients well above 100 pC/N and very small d31 and d32 coefficients, coupled with a limited thermal stability up to 50°C in the polypropylene workhorse material. The materials are pioneered in Finland and already entered the market in niches, for example in musical pick-ups. They promise large area applications, for example in surveillance and intruder systems. Finally, organic semiconductors have shown a rather unusual electromechanical response, governed by a power law S=V3/2 of strain S versus voltage V, located in between traditional piezoelectricity and electrostriction. The field of piezoelectric polymers therefore received new stimulus, and the material class of piezoelectric polymers has been significantly broadened recently.
Planet Earth is unique in our solar system as an abode of life. In contrast to its planetary neighbours, the presence of liquid water, a benign atmospheric environment, a solid surface and an internal structure providing a protective magnetic field make it a suitable habitat for man. While natural forces have shaped the Earth over millennia, man through his technological prowess may become a threat to this oasis of life in the solar system.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.