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The explosive outbreak of COVID-19 led to a shortage of medical resources, including isolation rooms in hospitals, healthcare workers (HCWs) and personal protective equipment. Here, we constructed a new model, non-contact community treatment centres to monitor and quarantine asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients who recorded their own vital signs using a smartphone application. This new model in Korea is useful to overcome shortages of medical resources and to minimise the risk of infection transmission to HCWs.
This study examined changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of care (QoC) as perceived by terminally ill cancer patients and a stratified set of HRQoL or QoC factors that are most likely to influence survival at the end of life (EoL).
We administered questionnaires to 619 consecutive patients immediately after they were diagnosed with terminal cancer by physicians at 11 university hospitals and at the National Cancer Center in Korea. Subjects were followed up over 161.2 person-years until their deaths. We measured HRQoL using the core 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, and QoC using the Quality Care Questionnaire–End of Life (QCQ–EoL). We evaluated changes in HRQoL and QoC issues during the first three months after enrollment, performing sensitivity analysis by using data generated via four methods (complete case analysis, available case analysis, the last observation carried forward, and multiple imputation).
Emotional and cognitive functioning decreased significantly over time, while dyspnea, constipation, and pain increased significantly. Dignity-conserving care, care by healthcare professionals, family relationships, and QCQ–EoL total score decreased significantly. Global QoL, appetite loss, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG–PS) scores were significantly associated with survival.
Significance of results:
Future standardization of palliative care should be focused on assessment of these deteriorated types of quality. Accurate estimates of the length of life remaining for terminally ill cancer patients by such EoL-enhancing factors as global QoL, appetite loss, and ECOG–PS are needed to help patients experience a dignified and comfortable death.
Tin zinc oxide (SnZnO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with different component fraction fabricated by solution process were reported. Sn chloride and Zn acetate were used as precursor and the maximum annealing temperature was 500°C. The electrical characteristics of TFTs were acutely affected by the molar ratio between Sn and Zn in the lattice, and showed the highest mobility and on-to-off ratio of about 17 cm2/Vs and 2×106, respectively. The origins of the high performance were traced through both structural and electrical aspects. Sn was generally considered to offer carrier path by superposition of s orbital, but it was found that the increase of Sn fraction only below specific value in lattice contributed to increase mobility, which could be explained by the structural distortion and the defect generation. Zn atoms introduced in the lattice were necessary to control both mobility and carrier concentration. From these results, the solution-processed SnZnO TFT with high performance was suggested.
A novel approach to sputter deposit low resistivity indium tin oxide thin films in cost effective way has been made. To reduce the complication of out-gassing from organic substances that are deposited at prior process steps in the flat panel display manufacturing, DC+RF magnetron sputtering was performed with a relatively high base pressure. Introduction of impurity atoms originated from residual air in the chamber into the film produced the change in lattice as well as microstructure of the film. Sputter deposition with higher base pressure resulted in lower resistivity of the film. Increase in the mobility of the carrier resulted in resistivity decrease. Resistivity as low as 1.5×10−4 Ω cm has been achieved with DC 0.67 W/cm2 + RF 0.67 W/cm2 power density and 10−5 Torr base pressure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed as much as 0.2 % increase in lattice constant resulted from higher base pressure sputtering. No further improvement of conductivity was observed for the base pressure over 10−5 Torr, suggesting impurity introduction saturation into the film.
The effect of process parameters on the optical property of the chromium/chromium compound multilayered thin film black matrix for liquid crystal display color filter has been investigated. A chromium compound layer was deposited reactively by DC magnetron sputtering, using gas mixture of Ar, CO2, and N2 on soda-lime glass substrate. Metallic chromium layer deposition was followed to enhance the light obstruction of the black matrix. X-Ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study showed that CrN is the major phase with unidentifiable oxides and carbides present as minor phases, in chromium compound layer, with nanocrystalline structure. Metallic chromium layer showed columnar growth structure. The ratio of CO2 in the reactive sputtering gas greatly affected the optical property of the multilayer, despite that N2 is the gas which contributes to the formation of the major phase. Delicate change of optical property is due to compositional variation of the compound layer, caused by reaction due to environmental changes. When processed with 10.28% of CO2 and 4.88% of N2 in 3.3 mTorr pressure, film with optical reflectivity of 3.31% at 655 nm of photon wavelength was obtained.
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