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Polycrystalline ice is known to exhibit macroscopic anisotropy in relative permittivity (ɛ) depending on the crystal orientation fabric (COF). Using a new system designed to measure the tensorial components of ɛ, we investigated the dielectric anisotropy (Δɛ) of a deep ice core sample obtained from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica. This technique permits the continuous nondestructive assessment of the COF in thick ice sections. Measurements of vertical prism sections along the core showed that the Δɛ values in the vertical direction increased with increasing depth, supporting previous findings of c-axis clustering around the vertical direction. Analyses of horizontal disk sections demonstrated that the magnitude of Δɛ in the horizontal plane was 10–15% of that in the vertical plane. In addition, the directions of the principal axes of tensorial ɛ in the horizontal plane corresponded to the long or short axis of the elliptically elongated single-pole maximum COF. The data confirmed that Δɛ in the vertical and horizontal planes adequately indicated the preferred orientations of the c-axes, and that Δɛ can be considered to represent a direct substitute for the normalized COF eigenvalues. This new method could be extremely useful as a means of investigating continuous and depth-dependent variations in COF.
Earlier gas measurements of firn air (atmosphere in open pore channels) at polar sites have revealed the occurrence of gas fractionation phenomena during bubble close-off, in addition to well-known thermal and gravitational gas separation. Nevertheless, because of difficulties posed by measurement, little is known about the distribution of air constituents in already closed pores (bubbles) in firn. Herein, we describe the application of high-sensitivity pure rotational Raman spectroscopy, combined with sample immersion in the fluorocarbon-based inert fluid for removing the optical disturbance by diffused reflection. That application efficiently elicits information about nitrogen and oxygen composition ratios (N2/O2 or O2/N2) for each air bubble in firn. The developed methodology presents important implications for elucidating how gas records are formed and modified in the course of pore close-off in polar firn.
In order to better understand the densification of polar firn, firn cores from the three sites within ~10 km of Dome Fuji, Antarctica, were investigated using surrogates of density: dielectric permittivities εv and εh at microwave frequencies with electrical fields in the vertical and horizontal planes respectively. Dielectric anisotropy Δε (=εv − εh) was then examined as a surrogate of the anisotropic geometry of firn. We find that layered densification is explained as a result of complex effects of two phenomena that commonly occur at the three sites. Basically, layers with initially smaller density and smaller geometrical anisotropy deform preferentially throughout the densification process due to textural effects. Second, layers having a higher concentration of Cl− ions deform preferentially during a limited period from the near surface depths until smoothing out of layered Cl− ions by diffusion. We hypothesize that Cl− ions dissociated from sea salts soften firn due to modulation of dislocation movement. Moreover, firn differs markedly across the three sites in terms of strength of geometrical anisotropy, mean rate of densification and density fluctuation. We hypothesize that these differences are caused by textural effects resulting from differences in depositional conditions within various spatial scales.
In this study, snow particle size variability was investigated along a transect in Dronning Maud Land from the coast to the polar plateau. The aim of the study was to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in surface snow properties. Samples were collected twice daily during a traverse in 2007–08 to capture regional variability. Local variability was assessed by sampling in 10×10 m grids (5 m spacing) at selected locations. The particle size and shape distributions for each site were analysed through digital image analysis. Snow particle size variability is complex at different scales, and shows an internal variability of 0.18–3.31 mm depending on the sample type (surface, grid or pit). Relationships were verified between particle size and both elevation and distance to the coast (moisture source). Regional seasonal changes were also identified, particularly on the lower elevations of the polar plateau. This dataset may be used to quantitatively analyse the optical properties of surface snow for remote sensing. The details of the spatial and temporal variations observed in our data provide a basis for further studies of the complex and coupled processes affecting snow particle size and the interpretation of remote sensing of snow covered areas.
Densification of firn at the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) camp is investigated using density surrogates: dielectric permittivities ∊v and ∊h at microwave frequencies with electrical fields in the vertical and horizontal planes, respectively. Dielectric anisotropy Δ∊ (= ∊v − ∊h) is then examined as a surrogate for the anisotropic geometry of firn. Its size, fluctuations and mutual correlations are investigated in samples taken at depths from the surface to ~90 m. The initial Δ∊ of ~0.06 appears within the uppermost 0.2 m. After that, Δ∊ decreases rapidly until 21–26 m depth. Below this, Δɛ decreases slowly. Layers with more ions of fluorine, chlorine and some cations deposited between the autumn and the subsequent summer deform preferentially during all these stages. This layered deformation is explained partly by the textural effects initially formed by the seasonal variation of metamorphism, and partly by ions such as fluorine, chlorine and ammonium, which are known to modulate dislocation movement in the ice crystal lattice. Insolation-sensitive microstructure appears to be preserved all the way to the pore close-off, within layers of the summer-to-autumn metamorphism. Like previous authors, we hypothesize that calcium is not the active agent in the reported deformation– calcium correlations.
During the Japanese-Swedish Antarctic traverse expedition of 2007/08, we measured the surface snow density at 46 locations along the 2800 km long route from Syowa station to Wasa station in East Antarctica. The mean snow density for the upper 1 (or 0.5) m layer varied from 333 to 439 kg m-3 over a region spanning an elevation range of 365-3800 ma.s.l. The density variations were associated with the elevation of the sampling sites; the density decreased as the elevation increased, moving from the coastal region inland. However, the density was relatively insensitive to the change in elevation along the ridge on the Antarctic plateau between Dome F and Kohnen stations. Because surface wind is weak in this region, irrespective of elevation, the wind speed was suggested to play a key role in the near-surface densification. The results of multiple regression performed on the density using meteorological variables were significantly improved by the inclusion of wind speed as a predictor. The regression analysis yielded a linear dependence between the density and the wind speed, with a coefficient of 13.5 kg m-3 (m s-1)-1. This relationship is nearly three times stronger than a value previously computed from a dataset available in Antarctica. Our data indicate that the wind speed is more important to estimates of the surface snow density in Antarctica than has been previously assumed.
As a joint contribution of Japan and Sweden to the International Polar Year 2007–09, a field expedition between Syowa and Wasa stations in East Antarctica was carried out in the 2007/08 austral summer season. Along the 2800 km long expedition route, the dielectric permittivity of the upper 1 m snow layer was measured at intervals of approximately 50 km using a snow fork, a parallel-wire transmission-line resonator. More than 2000 measurements were performed under carefully calibrated conditions, mostly in the interior of Antarctica. The permittivity ε′ was a function of snow density as in previous studies on dry snow, but the values were significantly smaller than those reported before. In the light of the dielectric mixture theory, the relatively smaller ε′ obtained in this study can be attributed to the snow structures characteristic in the studied region. Our data suggest that the permittivity of snow in the Antarctic interior is significantly affected by weak bonding between snow grains, which is due to depth-hoar formation in the extremely low-temperature conditions.
The surface mass balance (SMB) at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, was estimated using 36 bamboo stakes (grid of 6 × 6, placed at 20 m intervals) from 1995 to 2006. The heights of the stake tops from the snow surface were measured at 0.5 cm resolution twice monthly in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 2003, and once a year for the rest of the study period. To account for snow settling, the average snow density at the stake base during the measurements was used for converting the stake-height data to SMB. The annual SMB from 1995 to 2006 at Dome Fuji was 27.3 ± 1.5 kg m−2 a−1. This result agrees well with the annual SMB from AD 1260 to 1993 (26.4 kg m−2 a−1) estimated from volcanic signals in the Dome Fuji ice core. Over the period 1995–2006, there were 37 (8.6% of the measurements) negative or zero annual SMB results. Variation in the multi-year averages of annual SMB decreased with the square root of the number of observation years, and 10 years of observations of a single stake allowed the estimation of annual SMB at ±10% accuracy. The frequency distributions of annual and monthly SMB were examined. The findings clarify the complex behavior of the annual and monthly SMB at Dome Fuji, which will be common phenomena in areas of low snow accumulation of the interior of the Antarctic ice sheet.
Crystal-orientation fabric (COF) has a large influence on ice-sheet flow. Earlier radar studies have shown that COF-based birefringence occurs within ice sheets. Radio-wave scattering in polar ice results from changing physical properties of permittivity and conductivity that arise from differing values of density, acidity and COF. We present an improved mathematical model that can handle all these phenomena together. We use this matrix-based model to study the two-way propagation of depolarized radio waves that scatter at both isotropic and anisotropic boundaries. Based on numerical simulations, we demonstrate how COF affects the radar signals in terms of radar polarization and frequency. We then compare the simulated features with VHF radar data obtained at two contrasting inland sites in East Antarctica, where COF is known from ice-core studies. These two sites are Dome Fuji, located near a dome summit, and Mizuho, located in a converging ice-flow region. Data at Dome Fuji are dominated by typical features resulting from birefringence. In contrast, both birefringence and anisotropic scattering affect the radar data at Mizuho. We argue that radar methods can be used to determine principal axes and strength of birefringence in the ice sheets.
To better understand how internal radar echoes depend on ice-flow conditions and radar polarization, we surveyed two basins in East Antarctica using 179 MHz airborne radar. We compared radar echoes from three ice-flow conditions: parallel sheet flow in the main stream of a basin, convergent flow towards an ice stream, and longitudinal compression by nunataks. We detected a distinct zone of high radar scattering several hundred meters thick at middle depths in the latter two regions. This high-scattering zone was detected only when the radar polarization plane was parallel to the compression axis in ice. Such a high-scattering zone was not found in the parallel-flow region, regardless of the polarization. Using a recently developed theory of radar scattering in ice, we interpret the high-scattering zone as being caused by crystal-orientation-fabric alternations among adjacent ice layers due to difference in horizontal strain components. We argue that the spatial variation of the high-scattering zone is crucial for understanding past and present flow features.
Long-term changes of snow-accumulation rate in Antarctica are a major uncertainty in our understanding of past climate. Because the visible strata in polar ice are due to variations in the sizes and concentrations of air inclusions and microparticles, the scattered light intensity from an ice core yields valuable information on the stratification, which is likely to provide estimates of the annual accumulation rates. Identification of each layer is therefore necessary, and we developed an optical scanner apparatus to record detailed visible strata of ice cores. The apparatus records the two-dimensional distribution of light-scattering intensity along ice-core samples and produces an image of the whole ice-core sample by an image analysis process. These images showed that ice from Dome Fuji ice core contained a large number of layers. Volcanic layers were also well identified. We processed the scattering intensity on the enhanced intensity images to produce an intensity profile. This profile showed that the period of the intensity variations is consistent with a core-dating model applied to the Dome Fuji ice core. We also found that the intensity peaks are closely correlated to peaks in Ca2+ ion concentrations. Thus, our scanning method is a promising approach to measuring annual-layer thickness and, as a result, may be used to infer past accumulation rates in Antarctica.
We studied the scattering of radio waves off strata within the ice sheet at Mizuho station, Antarctica, to determine the most plausible scattering mechanisms at this location. We measured the effects of birefringence and anisotropic scattering boundaries on the return signal using the following set of experimental conditions: (1) co-polarization and cross-polarization antenna arrangements, (2) all orientations of the antenna system, (3) 60 and 179 MHz frequencies, and (4) pulse lengths of 150–1000 ns. Analyses of the propagated radio waves suggested that the signal is dominated by anisotropic scatter-ingboundaries at 179 MHz, but effects from birefringence also occurred. At depths of 250– 750 m, the scattering was stronger when the polarization plane was along the flowline. In contrast, at depths of about 900–1500 m, scattering was stronger when the polarization plane was perpendicular to the flowline. We suggest that the scattering below about 250 m is related to a layered ice stratum of crystal-orientation fabrics with different types or different cluster strengths. Although our study was at a single site, similar remote measurements over wider regions should provide valuable information about the physical structure of this vast ice sheet.
Laboratory experiments were done to better understand the electrical conduction mechanisms of impure, polycrystalline ice as represented by the 2503 m Dome Fuji (Antarctica) ice core. Also, two electrical measurement techniques for ice cores were compared and their usefulness for determining the acidity of ice cores was studied. We measured the electrical conductivity and complex permittivity of 167 slab-ice samples at frequencies from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. Measurements were performed at –21˚C for all samples, and at –110˚ to –20˚C for several samples, to examine the effects of temperature. We found linear relations between the AC loss factor and the molarity of sulfuric acid, and between the high-frequency-limit conductivity and the AC loss factor. Thus, the acidity levels can be determined from the AC loss factor. In contrast, the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) current correlated weakly with the other parameters; furthermore, the correlation worsens at larger signal. In several samples containing high acidity, the dielectric properties had distinct changes near –81˚C. We argue that these changes were caused by a change from a liquid-vein-mediated conduction mechanism above the eutectic point of the solute/water/ ice system to a solid-phase conduction mechanism at lower temperatures.
Radio-wave scattering is a convenient method to image the properties of large internal regions of ice sheets. We used a ground-based radar system with short pulses of 60 and 179MHz frequencies to scatter off internal strata within 100–700 m of the surface in the ice sheet of East Antarctica. Data were examined along an 1150 kmlong traverse line that was approximately along the ice flowline from inland of Dome Fuji station to the coast. The scattered waves are from strata, and the dominant cause of the scattering was changes in dielectric permittivity across the strata. Therefore, density fluctuations primarily cause the scattering, although variations in ice-crystal fabrics and acidity could also have effects. The power scattered from the same depths varied by > 15 dB from one location to another. These variations correlate with the accumulation rate, changes in the surface slope, and subglacial bedrock undulations. Variations of the scattered power suggest that density contrasts in the strata are highly variable depending on these interdependent local conditions. The distribution of strata along the route allowed estimates of the ice-flow trajectories to depths of about 250 m.
To better understand how ice sheets respond to climate, we designed a new multi-frequency ice-penetrating radar system to investigate subsurface structures of ice sheets. The system is mounted on a single platform and handled by a single operator. Three radio frequencies, 30,60 and 179 MHz, were used. An underlying principle of these multi-frequency observations is that the lower frequencies are more sensitive to electrical conductivity changes, whereas the higher frequencies are more sensitive to dielectric permittivity fluctuations in the ice. The system is composed of three single-frequency pulse radars, a trigger-controller unit and a data-acquisition unit. The trigger controller is the key component of this system. It switches transmitters on at different timings to prevent mixing of signals among the three radars. The timing difference was set as 50 μs, which is equivalent to the two-way travel time for radio waves reflecting from 4250m below the surface. A field test was done along a 2000 km long traverse line in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The multi-frequency system successfully acquired data that are equivalent in quality to our earlier single-frequency measurements along the same traverse line. The details of the system and preliminary data are described.
The 320 kyr climatic record from the 2503 m Dome Fuji (Antarctica) ice core was analyzed using two electrical methods: AC-ECM and ECM (electrical conductivity measurements). AC-ECM is a method to detect the complex admittance between electrodes dragged on the ice surface with mm-scale resolution and uses 1V and 1 MHz. the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the admittance is the AC loss factor, which responds linearly to the amount of sulfuric acid and hydrogen ions. Both the AC loss factor and the ECM current respond to acid, but the ECM signal tends to saturate at high acidities. Dome Fuji ice was measured to be highly acidic, with background values of 2–7 μM, and had 4500 major peaks with acidities of up to 90 μM. This ice-core evidence and earlier snow-chemistry survey around the dome region indicates that Dome F may have a better connection to the stratosphere than have sites at lower altitude, which allows more stratospheric aerosol and gases to reach the snow surface. Acidity tends to be high in interglacial periods, but correlation between acidity and δ18O is not straightforward. Electrical signals decreased and smoothed out with increasing depth; the diffusion coefficients deduced from this smoothing were 10–102 times greater than in solid ice. the ice core exhibited electromechanical effects and expelling effects from sulfate peaks.
Effects of an implosion nonuniformity with [ell ] = 1 ([ell ]:
Legendre polynomial mode number) on the hot spark formation
were investigated in a series of direct-drive implosion experiments
at the Gekko-Xll glass laser (Yamanaka et al., 1987).
The implosion dynamics and the performance from the early to
final stage of the implosion were observed with a variety of
X-ray imaging and neutron diagnostics. A drive nonuniformity
in the implosion with [ell ] = 1 was observed in the shape of
the accelerated target at the early stage of the implosion.
At the final stage of the implosion, the resultant nonuniformity
with [ell ] = 1 was also observed as a geometrical shift of core
plasmas from the center of the chamber. The observed neutron
yield and X-ray emission properties at the final stage of the
implosion were significantly degraded with an increase of the
implosion nonuniformity with [ell ] = 1. The experimental results
were compared with one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional
(2-D) hydrodynamic simulations. As a result, it was found that
the implosion nonuniformity with [ell ] = 1 shifts the whole
implosion dynamics towards its direction and prevents the
confinement of the gas fuel considerably. However, the
experimentally observed degradation in the hot spark formation,
such as reductions in neutron yield and features in X-ray emission,
can be reproduced in 2-D simulations not with an asymmetric
perturbation of [ell ] = 1 only but with multimode nonuniformities
such as [ell ] = 1 coupled with some additional middle-mode ones
(e.g., [ell ] = 6). Such a complex spike structure caused by
the multimode nonuniformities was found to be essential for
the experimentally observed rapid cooling of the hot spark.
Causes of ice-sheet layering at ice depths greater than about 900 mina transect between Dome C and the Transantarctic Mountains are examined using 60 MHz radar data, collected in the 1970s by the U.K.–U.S.–Danish collaboration. Normally, a dual-frequency technique is required for accurate determination of internal reflection mechanisms. However, by extracting the depth-related features of 60 MHz radar profiles and comparing them with the dual-frequency data collected by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, we have identified a simple method to estimate internal reflection mechanisms. Two zones can be distinguished: (1) the CA zone, where change in electrical conductivity due to variation in acidity is the major cause of internal reflection, and (2) the PCOF zone, where change in dielectric permittivity due to crystal-orientation fabrics is the major cause of internal reflections. Our analysis shows that the radar data reveal the development of PCOF zones in regions where large amounts of ice shearing are expected. This analysis shows how a similar interpretation of the full radar-data archive may reveal information on internal reflection mechanisms across a large part of the East Antarctic ice sheet.
Dynamical behavior of radiative recombination has been assessed in the In0.20Ga0.80N (3nm)/In0.05Ga0.95N (6 nm) multiple quantum well (MQW) structure by means of transmittance (TR), electroreflectance (ER), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. The PL at 20 K was mainly composed of two emission bands whose peaks are located at 2.920 eV and 3.155 eV. The ER and PLE revealed that the transition at 3.155 eV is due to the excitons at quantized level between n=1 conduction and n=1 A(Γ9υ) valence bands, while the main PL peak at 2.920 eV is attributed to the excitons localized at the trap centers within the well. The TRPL features were well understood as the effect of localization where photo-generated excitons are transferred from the n=1 band to the localized centers, and then are localized further to the tail state. The origin of the localized centers were attributed to the In-rich region in the wells acting as quantum dots which could be observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX).
The causes and nature of ice-sheet radio-echo internal reflections at deep layers in polar ice sheets are discussed, based on the dielectric properties of ice that have been measured at microwave frequency and radio frequency. The reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves in ice sheets due to two causes the change in permittivity induced by changes in crystal-orientation fabrics with depth, and changes in conductivity induced by changes in acidity with depth - were derived respectively as a function of the frequency used in radar sounding and the temperature of ice, and both were compared quantitatively. It is shown that at single-plane boundaries the reflection coefficients due to the former cause are independent of frequency and temperature and that they are large enough to produce dominant internal reflections. In contrast, reflection coefficients due to the latter cause strongly depend on frequency and temperature. Since they are inversely proportional to the frequency, the latter cause can be dominant only when frequencies below about 60 MHz are used. Examination of previous observational data has suggested that not only changes in acidity but also changes in crystal-orientation fabrics exist at depths corresponding to the dates of earlier volcanic eruptions.