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Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
The Pediatric Heart Network Normal Echocardiogram Database Study had unanticipated challenges. We sought to describe these challenges and lessons learned to improve the design of future studies.
Challenges were divided into three categories: enrolment, echocardiographic imaging, and protocol violations. Memoranda, Core Lab reports, and adjudication logs were reviewed. A centre-level questionnaire provided information regarding local processes for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used, and chi-square tests determined differences in imaging quality.
For the 19 participating centres, challenges with enrolment included variations in Institutional Review Board definitions of “retrospective” eligibility, overestimation of non-White participants, centre categorisation of Hispanic participants that differed from National Institutes of Health definitions, and exclusion of potential participants due to missing demographic data. Institutional Review Board amendments resolved many of these challenges. There was an unanticipated burden imposed on centres due to high numbers of echocardiograms that were reviewed but failed to meet submission criteria. Additionally, image transfer software malfunctions delayed Core Lab image review and feedback. Between the early and late study periods, the proportion of unacceptable echocardiograms submitted to the Core Lab decreased (14 versus 7%, p < 0.01). Most protocol violations were from eligibility violations and inadvertent protected health information disclosure (overall 2.5%). Adjudication committee reviews led to protocol changes.
Numerous challenges encountered during the Normal Echocardiogram Database Study prolonged study enrolment. The retrospective design and flaws in image transfer software were key impediments to study completion and should be considered when designing future studies collecting echocardiographic images as a primary outcome.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Agreement between echocardiography and right heart catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure is modest in the adult heart failure population, but is unknown in the paediatric cardiomyopathy population.
All patients at a single centre from 2001 to 2012 with a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy who underwent echocardiography and catheterisation within 30 days were included in this study. The correlation between tricuspid regurgitation gradient and catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure was determined. Agreement between echocardiography and catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure was assessed using Bland–Altman plots. Analysis was repeated for patients who underwent both procedures within 7 days. Haemodynamic data from those with poor agreement and good agreement between echocardiography and catheterisation were compared.
A total of 37 patients who underwent 48 catheterisation procedures were included in our study. The median age was 11.8 (0.1–20.6 years) with 22 males (58% total). There was a modest correlation (r=0.65) between echocardiography and catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure, but agreement was poor. Agreement between tricuspid regurgitation gradient and right ventricular systolic pressure showed wide 95% limits of agreement. There was a modest correlation between the tricuspid regurgitation gradient and mean pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.6). Shorter time interval between the two studies did not improve agreement. Those with poor agreement between echocardiography and catheterisation had higher right heart pressures, but this difference became insignificant after accounting for right atrial pressure.
Transthoracic echocardiography estimation of right ventricular systolic pressure shows modest correlation with right heart pressures, but has limited agreement and may underestimate the degree of pulmonary hypertension in paediatric cardiomyopathy patients.
The prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is incompletely studied in children. Furthermore, right ventricular function may signal worse outcomes. We evaluated recently published right ventricular function echocardiographic indices in identifying dysfunction in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and the impact of right ventricular dysfunction on long-term prognosis.
A retrospective database review of right ventricular function indices in 30 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was compared with 60 age- and sex-matched controls from January, 2001 until December, 2010. Right ventricular function was assessed by Doppler tissue peak systolic S′, early and late diastolic E′ and A′ waves and isovolumic acceleration at the tricuspid valve annulus; pulsed wave Doppler tricuspid valve inflow E and A waves; right ventricular myocardial performance index; tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; right ventricular fractional area change.
Right ventricular systolic and diastolic function in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was significantly impaired. All measured indices except for isovolumic acceleration and fractional area change were significantly reduced, with a p-value less than 0.05. There was no right ventricular index predictive of death or transplantation. Patients with poor outcome were significantly more likely to need inotropic support (p-value equal to 0.018), be placed on a ventricular assist device (p equal to 0.005), and have a worse left ventricular ejection fraction z-score (p-value equal to 0.002).
Right ventricular dysfunction is under-recognised in children presenting with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The need for clinical circulatory support and left ventricular ejection fraction z-score less than minus 8 were primary determinants of outcome, independent of the degree of derangement in right ventricular function.
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