To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
We report a breakthrough in the field of electrolyte additives for use in lithium ion batteries. Batteries containing maleimide (0.1 wt%) as an electrolyte additive absorbed moisture (H2O) from a high-humidity atmosphere. When compared with batteries without the maleimide and absorbed moisture, the capacity of batteries with the “binary additive” showed improvements of 7.4% and 5.2% in a 0.1C/0.1C cycle test, and 394% and 174% in high-power 3C rate tests conducted at room temperature and 55 °C, respectively. Thus, this innovative additive formation can effectively reduce the requirement for anhydrous conditions during the fabrication and operation of lithium ion batteries.
The estimation of dietary intake in population-based studies is often assessed by the FFQ. The objective of our study is to evaluate the validity of an FFQ used to assess dietary fatty acid intake among middle-aged Chinese adults in Southern China.
The method of triads was applied to obtain the validity coefficients (VC) of the FFQ for specific fatty acids. A subsample was randomly selected from an earlier cross-sectional study. The FFQ and 3d dietary records were used for dietary assessment, and the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was determined as the biomarker.
The Spearman correlation coefficients between the FFQ and 3d dietary records were moderate to good (r = 0·28–0·66). The VC of the FFQ estimated by the method of triads were 0·72, 0·61, 0·65, 0·75 and 0·67 for MUFA, total n-6 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA, respectively. The VC could not be calculated for SFA, PUFA and total n-3 fatty acids because of negative correlations among the three measurements. But, the correlations between the FFQ and the dietary records were moderate for these fatty acids.
Our FFQ applied in Southern Chinese adults was valid to estimate their dietary fatty acid intake and was thus suitable for use in a large cohort study.
In this paper we report the nano-phase separation structure in the polymer
blend film and its optical properties. Polystyrene (PS)/polymethyl
methacrylate (PMMA) blend film is spin-coated on substrate. A sandwiched
structure consisting of a depleted PMMA layer, a PS/PMMA blend layer and a
PS-rich top layer has been formed. By selectively dissolving the PS-rich
phase, a nanoporous film is generated, and the nanoporous structure can be
tuned by changing the weight ratio of PS/PMMA in the blend solution in
fabrication. The optical properties of the nanoporous thin films are
determined. Our results show that by introducing the nanoporous structure,
the refractive index can be effectively modified. By selecting proper film
thickness, the maximum optical transmission can be achieved in the specific
A total of 80 patients, diagnosed by echocardiography as having ventricular septal defect with aortic valvar prolapse, underwent cardiac catheterization and surgery. Echocardiographic and angiographic results were compared with surgical findings. The ventricular septal defects as observed during surgery were found to be doubly committed and subarterial in 49 (61%), muscular outlet in 10 (13%), and perimembranous in 21(26%). The location had been erroneously categorized by echocardiography and angiography in 12 (15%) and in 15 (19%) patients, respectively. Prolapse of the right coronary leaflet of the aortic valve, as documented by echocardiography, was confirmed by angiography in all but two cases. Prolapse of the noncoronary leaflet was detected by both imaging modalities in three patients. Prolapse of the right coronary and noncoronary leaflets was observed at surgery in 49 and three patients, respectively. The mean size of the ventricular septal defect, when measured by echocardiography, was significantly smaller than that found following surgical measurements (3.3±1.3 vs 8.4±3.8 mm, p<0.001). Our study showed that the ventricular septal defect was erroneously classified in the presence of prolapse of the aortic valve in 15% and 19% of our cases by echocardiography and angiography, respectively. The herniated sinus of Valsalva forming the “roof” of the ventricular septal defect probably redirected the jet across the defect to cause the errors in interpretation. Echocardiography, nevertheless, is as reliable as angiography in our hands in the follow-up of patients with ventricular septal defect opening to the outlet of the right ventricle.
Keh-Ming Lin, Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Research, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan,
Chia-Hui Chen, Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Research National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan,
Shu-Han Yu, Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Research National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan,
Sheng-Chang Wang, Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Research National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
The use of psychiatric medication has transcended geographic, cultural, and ethnic boundaries during the past several decades (Lin, Poland et al., 1993; Lin & Cheung, 1999; Lin & Smith, 2000). Within a few years of their discovery, modern psychotropics have achieved worldwide acceptance as the mainstay for the treatment of the mentally ill (Lin, Poland et al., 1993; Ng, Lin et al., 2005). This notwithstanding, until most recently, clinicians and researchers have paid little attention to potential influences of ethnic and cultural factors on pharmacotherapeutic responses. With a few prominent exceptions, practically all psychiatric medications have been developed and tested in North America and Western Europe, and often, on “young, white males.” In addition, since these research efforts usually aim at defining what are “typical” that can be generalized, variations in responses are often regarded as “noises” and consequently ignored. Therefore, although substantial differences in psychotropic responses have been repeatedly observed and documented in the literature, such information has not been widely disseminated, and our knowledge in this regard is still sparse and unsystematic. Treatment decisions are generally not individualized; choice of medication and dosing routines are largely based on “trial and error” practices rather than on rational principles.
In contrast, recent literature clearly demonstrates that ethnicity and culture powerfully determine individuals' pharmacological responses (Lin & Poland, 1995). These responses are shaped simultaneously by genetic and environmental factors.
The yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula, is the only living species of the genus Martes found in subtropical and tropical forests (Harrison et al. 2004). It is distributed throughout central and southern Asia in a wide variety of habitats. Despite its extensive geographical range, the ecology and behaviour of this species has so far received little attention, aside from a study of habitat use (Grassman et al. 2005). Studies on other martens have shown that fruits are an important food resource (e.g. M. martes, Bermejo & Guitian 2000; M. foina, Pandolfi et al. 1996). Thus, they are considered to be important potential seed dispersers (Corlett 1998, Herrera 1989, Willson 1993), as confirmed by recent studies (M. melampus, Otani 2002; M. americana, Hickey et al. 1999; M. foina and M. martes, Schaumann & Heinken 2002). Although no systematic study of the diet of M. flavigula has been conducted (Harrison et al. 2004), it is known to be omnivorous and to consume fruit (Gao & Wang 1987). To date, however, there has been no comprehensive study of frugivory and seed dispersal by M. flavigula (but see Corlett 1998).