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The association between dietary Fe intake and diabetes risk remains inconsistent. We aimed to explore the association between dietary Fe intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in middle-aged and older adults in urban China. This study used data from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study, an on-going community-based prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited from 2008 to 2013 in Guangzhou community. A total of 2696 participants aged 40–75 years without T2DM at baseline were included in data analyses, with a median of 5·6 (interquartile range 4·1–5·9) years of follow-up. T2DM was identified by self-reported diagnosis, fasting glucose ≥ 7·0 mmol/l or glycosylated Hb ≥ 6·5 %. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. We ascertained 205 incident T2DM cases during 13 476 person-years. The adjusted HR for T2DM risk in the fourth quartile of haem Fe intake was 1·92 (95 % CI 1·07, 3·46; Ptrend = 0·010), compared with the first quartile intake. These significant associations were found in haem Fe intake from total meat (HR 2·74; 95 % CI 1·22, 6·15; Ptrend = 0·011) and haem Fe intake from red meat (HR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·44; Ptrend = 0·034), but not haem Fe intake from processed meat, poultry or fish/shellfish. The association between dietary intake of total Fe or non-haem Fe with T2DM risk had no significance. Our findings suggested that higher dietary intake of haem Fe (especially from red meat), but not total Fe or non-haem Fe, was associated with greater T2DM risk in middle-aged and older adults.
The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4.80%. No evidence was found for an increasing or decreasing trend in prevalence of HAI over 8 years (trend χ2 = 2.15, P = 0.143). However, significant differences in prevalence of HAI were evident between the surveys (χ2 = 21.14, P < 0.001). The intensive care unit had the highest frequency of HAIs (24.36%) and respiratory tract infections accounted for 62.50% of all cases; Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (16.67%). A 44.13% prevalence of antimicrobial use with a gradually decreasing trend over time was recorded. More attention should be paid to potential high-risk clinical departments and HAI types with further enhancement of rational antimicrobial use.
Polycrystalline Ba8Ga16MgxGe30−x compounds were synthesized by combining solid-state reaction with spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The structural and electronic properties of Mg-substituted Ge type-I clathrate phase Ba8Ga16MgxGe30−x (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Theoretically structural and electronic properties of Ba8Ga16MgxGe30−x were calculated by first-principles method based on the density-functional theory. The results indicate a strong preference for the occupation of the 6c sites by Mg. It is found that Mg substitution for Ge can lower the melting points and bulk modulus of this system. The formation energies and the binding energies decrease with increasing Mg content, suggesting that the Mg-doped Ba8Ga16Ge30 clathrates are stable in a limited range of composition. The calculated results show that these alloys are all indirect gap semiconductors and the values of band gap increase with the increase of Mg content. All specimens exhibit the behavior of the p-type conduction, which is originated from the presence of a shallow acceptor energy level. The electrical conductivity and the room-temperature carrier mobility decrease with increasing Mg content, while the room-temperature carrier concentration increases with increasing Mg content.
A fusuline fauna consisting of 9 species of 4 genera from the Xiala Formation of the Mujiucuo section, Xainza County, Tibet, China is described. The fusuline fauna is dominated by Nankinella and Chusenella and indicates a Midian (Late Guadalupian) age. The earliest record of fusuline fauna during the Midian in the Lhasa Block suggests that the block rifted later than the Qiangtang Block to the north and the Baoshan and Tengchong blocks to the east, all of which yield much earlier fusuline faunas of Yakhtashian (Artinskian) age, but had drifted away from Gondwana to a relatively warm temperate zone in the Late Guadalupian (Middle Permian).
Spindle movement, including spindle migration during first meiosis and spindle rotation during second meiosis, is essential for asymmetric divisions in mouse oocytes. Previous studies by others and us have shown that microfilaments are required for both spindle migration and rotation. In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the mechanism controlling spindle movement during mouse oocyte meiosis. By employing drug treatment and immunofluorescence microscopy, we showed that dynamic microtubule assembly was involved in both spindle migration and rotation. Furthermore, we found that the calcium/CaM/CaMKII pathway was important for regulating spindle rotation.
The study was conducted to gain an understanding of the status of potential nutrition risks in > 53-year-old men and women in Taiwan.
The study employed a validated nutrition-risk screening questionnaire, the Mini Nutritional Assessment, to assess the potential risk of undernutrition in the elderly population in Taiwan. The questionnaire was translated into the local language, Chinese, and was modified slightly based on cultural considerations. It was administered to 4440 randomly selected subjects by means of face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire included questions on subjective self-evaluations, global parameters, simple dietary assessment and some anthropometric measurements.
Results show that the questionnaire can be used effectively as a tool to screen for individuals who are at risk of undernutrition. It showed that the proportion of the elderly population at risk of nutritional inadequacy is relatively low, but does increase with advanced ageing. The proportion of the elderly considered at high risk of undernutrition was found to increase with age, ranging from 0.88% for 53–60-year-old subjects to 1.86% for subjects aged 60–70 years, 3.6% for 70–80-year-olds and 5.3% for >80-year-old subjects.
The study showed that a simple questionnaire adopted from the Mini Nutritional Assessment can be employed to provide a preliminary screening and to identify individuals who are potentially at increased risk of nutritional inadequacy in the elderly population in Taiwan.
We analyzed postsynaptic potentials and dye-labeled
morphology of tectal neurons responding to electrical stimulation
of the optic nerve and of the nucleus isthmi in a reptile,
Gekko gekko, in order to compare with previously
reported interactions between the optic tectum and the
nucleus isthmi in amphibians and birds. The results indicate
that isthmic stimulation exerts inhibitory and excitatory
actions on tectal cells, similar to dual isthmotectal actions
in amphibians. It appears that dual actions of the isthmotectal
pathway in amphibians and reptiles are shared by two subdivisions
of the nucleus isthmi in birds. The morphology of tectal
cells responding to isthmic stimulation is generally similar
to that of tectoisthmic projecting neurons, but they differ
particularly in that some tectoisthmic cells bear numerous
varicosities whereas cells receiving isthmic afferents
do not. Thus, it is likely that at least some tectoisthmic
cells may not be in the population of tectal cells that
can be affected by isthmic stimulation. Forty-four percent
of injections resulted in dye-coupled labeling, suggesting
extensive electrical connections between tectal cells in
Three census methods for studying fruiting phenology and fruit production were compared: platform observation, fruit-trap collection and raked-ground survey. The estimation of fresh fruit mass varied greatly with the census method used. Moreover, the fruiting phenology recorded using the fruit-trap collection and raked-ground survey methods showed a delay of one to two months compared with the platform observation method. Any of the three methods can be used for the approximation of annual fruiting phenology, but that of fruit-trap collection is suited to measure the annual fruit production, and that of platform observation offers the best estimation of the quantity of fruit in tree crowns at a given time.
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