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Self-separated Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films were processed by a hydrothermal deposition and a rapid thermal separation method, followed by a sol–gel filling and sintering process. The films possess excellent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties close to those of bulk material. The maximum remnant polarization is over 30 μC/cm2 and the electromechanical coupling factor (kt) reaches as high as 0.52. The unique microstructure characteristics of the PZT films, such as their highly dense structure, columnar grains, well-connected grain boundaries, and well-dispersed nanopores, could all contribute to the enhanced piezoelectric and electromechanical properties.
Using an interspecies microinsemination assay with bovine oocytes, it was examined whether centrosomes of Antarctic minke whale spermatozoa function as the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC). Bull and rat spermatozoa were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes were subjected to immunostaining against α-tubulin 4–6 h after intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of 5 mM dithiothreitol-treated spermatozoa. Aster formation occurred from whale spermatozoa (33%) and bull spermatozoa (33%), but very little from rat spermatozoa (3%). Activation treatment for the microinseminated oocytes with 7% ethanol + 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in a similar proportion of oocytes forming a whale sperm aster (35% vs 27% in the non-treated group; 4 h after ICSI) but a significantly larger aster (ratio of aster diameter to oocyte diameter, 0.57 vs 0.30 in the non-treated group). These results indicate that the centrosome introduced into bovine oocytes by whale spermatozoa contributes to the MTOC and that assembly of the microtubule network is promoted by oocyte activation.
We have studied on hydro-thermally synthesis of Pb(Ti, Zr)O3(PZT)piezoelectric polycrystalline thick film on titanium (Ti) substrate. The purpose of this study is resolving the problems for application of PZT hydrothermal polycrystalline thick film to the ultra miniature high frequency medical ultrasound array probe. The problems were the existence of pinholes in the deposited PZT film, the rough surface of that, low dielectric breakdown electric field etc. The surface of Ti substrate was pretreated to have hydrophilic property by using high reactivity of hydrogen peroxide for resolving the problems in this study. As results, hydrophilic property on the surface of Ti substrate was improved. Surface of PZT hydrothermal polycrystalline thick film without pinholes and smooth surface of that were obtained. Furthermore, the material properties like density, Young's modulus and piezoelectric constant d31 were increased by the pretreatment of Ti substrate. Consequently, dielectric breakdown electric field of PZT hydrothermal polycrystalline film was improved.
The purpose of this study was to improve deposition rate of the hydrothermal method for lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film on titanium substrate. We developed a high-speed rotaion substrate holder at a tangential velocity of about 0.8m/s in autoclave. A titanium substrate was fixed by the holder on the surface of a stirring bar. For the film deposition, powder of TiO2 was used instead of the liquid TiCl4. The deposition rate on titanium substrate was improved up to 7μm/24h. Piezoelectric constant d31 of the hydrothermal PZT film was -2.6 × 1011 V/m. This result was lower than that of PZT ceramics. However, this hydrothermal method obtained thick film and this film was confirmed to be polycrystalline PZT analyses of XRD and SEM. In addition, performance of thickness mode vibration of hydrothermal PZT 50μm thick film was investigated by radiating in water. The phase velocity of dilatational wave of the thickness mode vibration of the hydrothermal PZT film was 1800m/s and the electromechanical coupling factor was 47%.
Formation of icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase) was investigated for Mg-Al-X (X=Co, Ni, Cu, Rh, Ag, Pt and Au) ternary systems. A Mackay-icosahedron (MI) type i-phase was found to form in the Mg-Al-Rh system at the composition Mg8Al68Rh24. The i-phase has the F-type ordered structure and the quasilattice constant is 0.447nm. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies showed that the i-phase has a high stability. On the other hand, the formation of a Frank-Kasper (FK) type i-phase was found in the Mg-Al-Pt system at the composition Mg45Al42Pt13. The conditions necessary for the formation of the i-phases are discussed in terms of the atomic radius ratio and the electronegativity as well as the electron-per-atom ratio.
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