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The formation of nanosized porous oxide layers on titanium (Ti) by asymmetric alternating current anodizing in sulfuric acid has been studied using electrochemical techniques. In order to prevent spark discharge at Ti electrode upon its anodization in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution, the magnitude of the cathodic current is reduced using a special electrical circuit consisting of a variable resistor and two diodes. The unique surface treatment approach gives rise to the formation of nanosized porous layer in a very short period of time and without spark discharge. The surface of porous layers thus obtained has in vitro apatite-forming ability.
Zonisamide (ZNS) is an antiepileptic drug developed in Japan. Various experimental studies have investigated the effects of ZNS. However, the mechanism of action of ZNS against limbic seizures and secondary generalization is not well-known. We studied ictal regional accumulation of ZNS in the rat brain during kainic acid (KA)-induced limbic status epilepticus.
Fourteen male Wistar rats underwent a stereotactic operation. For recording the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrodes were placed in the left amygdala (LA), left dorsal hippocampus, and over the left sensorimotor cortex. For microinjection, a stainless steel cannula was also inserted into the LA. Seven days after surgery, rats were anesthetized and a catheter was inserted into the femoral vein. The animals were immobilized and allowed to recover from anesthesia for at least two hours. In eight rats, 1.0μL (1.0μg) of KA was injected into the LA, and 1.0 μL of phosphate buffer solution was injected into the LA in six control rats. Sixty minutes after injection, 14C-ZNS was administered intravenously, and an autoradiographic study was done.
During limbic status epilepticus, only seizures in the sensorimotor cortex were markedly attenuated a few minutes after 14C-ZNS administration. Additionally, high uptake of 14C-ZNS was noted ipsilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex, parietal cortex and thalamus (lateral portion). In control rats, no EEG change was seen, and distribution of 14C-ZNS was rather homogeneous.
These results suggested that ZNS suppresses secondary generalization of limbic seizures by a direct effect on the cerebral cortex.
Background: Thirty-three Japanese children and adolescents diagnosed with an anxiety disorder participated in individual or group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) that was modelled after evidence-based intervention programs developed in Western countries. Method: The treatment consisted of: (a) building rapport and education; (b) identifying emotions and recognizing cognitive self-talk; (c) challenging anxious self-talk; (d) developing an anxiety hierarchy and in vivo exposures; and (e) planning for future challenges. Results: Three months following treatment, 20 of the 33 children and adolescents (60.91%) no longer met criteria for their principal anxiety disorders and 16 (48.48%) were free from all anxiety disorders. Self-reported anxiety, depression, and cognitive errors also decreased significantly from pre- to post-treatment and these gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. For the most part, similar outcomes were found in both the group and individual formats of CBT. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary support for the transportability of CBT in both an individual and group format to Japan.
A conductivity difference in a PZT film in a Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor was found by novel charged-up SIMS analyses for the first time. The charged-up SIMS technique was useful for evaluating the conductivity profile in the PZT film. It was found that the conductive region existed in an as-prepared PZT film near the bottom Pt electrode. After hydrogen plasma treatment at 45°C, the conductive region increased in the PZT film near the top electrode. Electrical measurements showed that the leakage current of the capacitor increased after hydrogen treatment. The hydrogen was expected to reduce PZT both at grain boundaries and the electrode-PZT interfaces, and to form the conductive region, which induced an increase in leakage current.
Y–Ba–Cu–O films were prepared on yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystalline substrate using KrF excimer laser irradiation with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) complexes as a target material. The results of the x-ray θ-2θ scan showed that the films grown above 750 °C were preferentially oriented with a c-axis normal to the substrate. The value of full-width at half-maximum of (005) reflection reduced from 4.4° to 2.1° by increasing the laser power density in a range between 0.8 and 3.8 J/cm2. The transcription of the compositional ratio was improved by approaching the target-substrate distance from 45 to 20 mm. The films obtained at 800 °C consisted of many islands showing well-developed spiral growth, suggesting that the droplets of metal-EDTA complexes do not form random oriented crystalline particles on the surface of the substrate.
It is well knovm that a characteristic plastic flow occurs when two discs are rolled together at loads exceeding the yield point; even in the case of rolling contact without slip, a deformed layer shows marked plastic flow with respect to the direction opposite to the rolling direction. This phenomenon was first found by Crook and Welch. Later, Johnson and his co-workers explained why the forward flow occurs under pure normal stresses.
The aim of the present study is to reproduce the various types of plastic flow under different testing conditions of rolling contact, such as nearly pure rolling contact, rolling contact by friction drive, and rolling-sliding contact. After a test of repeated rolling contact, the mode of plastic flow and the residual stress distribution at the surface of the specimen were observed. Further, the experimental data were compared with the result of analytical calculation by the method of Merwin and Johnson.
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