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Self-affirmation is known to buffer the development of anxiety symptoms into depressive symptoms, and a study during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic revealed a role for this self-affirmation. In Japan, the COVID-19 pandemic has occurred repeatedly, and at this point (November 16, 2022), prior to an eighth wave. The possibility of ameliorating the psychological effects of this prolonged COVID-19 pandemic through efficient interventions targeting self-affirmation will be examined.
Study dates: June 25, 2020; September 25, 2020; February 10, 2021; November 24, 2021; February 7, 2022; August 31, 2022
Survey participants: Registered monitors of the research company (Neo Marketing Co., Ltd.) Each 1,000 respondents
1) Attributes: gender, age, region, number of family members
2) DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21)
3) LSNS-6 (the Lubben Social Network Scale-6)
CIPS (Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale)
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Japanese version)
The self-affirmation scale (CIPS; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) was measured from the 4th to the 6th survey.
Contribution of each factor to depressive symptoms:
The DASS-21 Depressive Symptom Scores from the 4th through 6th surveys were examined using Prediction One with the DASS-21 Anxiety Symptom Score, DASS-21 Stress Score, Connections Score, Rosenberg, and CIPS score as factors to determine their contribution.
At the time of the second survey (September 25, 2020), DASS-21 scores peaked and then declined. CIPS and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores showed no change from the 4th to the 6th session. The result of contribution of each factor to depressive symptoms by Prediction One showed anxiety symptoms contributed the most to depressive symptoms.
A model in which self-affirmation prevents anxiety symptoms from progressing to depressive symptoms is reasonable until the 7th wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.
Zonisamide (ZNS) is an antiepileptic drug developed in Japan. Various experimental studies have investigated the effects of ZNS. However, the mechanism of action of ZNS against limbic seizures and secondary generalization is not well-known. We studied ictal regional accumulation of ZNS in the rat brain during kainic acid (KA)-induced limbic status epilepticus.
Fourteen male Wistar rats underwent a stereotactic operation. For recording the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrodes were placed in the left amygdala (LA), left dorsal hippocampus, and over the left sensorimotor cortex. For microinjection, a stainless steel cannula was also inserted into the LA. Seven days after surgery, rats were anesthetized and a catheter was inserted into the femoral vein. The animals were immobilized and allowed to recover from anesthesia for at least two hours. In eight rats, 1.0μL (1.0μg) of KA was injected into the LA, and 1.0 μL of phosphate buffer solution was injected into the LA in six control rats. Sixty minutes after injection, 14C-ZNS was administered intravenously, and an autoradiographic study was done.
During limbic status epilepticus, only seizures in the sensorimotor cortex were markedly attenuated a few minutes after 14C-ZNS administration. Additionally, high uptake of 14C-ZNS was noted ipsilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex, parietal cortex and thalamus (lateral portion). In control rats, no EEG change was seen, and distribution of 14C-ZNS was rather homogeneous.
These results suggested that ZNS suppresses secondary generalization of limbic seizures by a direct effect on the cerebral cortex.
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