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The occurrence of anorectal malformations (ARM) is thought to be reduced with sufficient folate intake. However, there is no apparent evidence. We focused on enzyme cofactors for one-carbon metabolism, including folate (vitamin B9), vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, and explored the association between maternal combined intake of these B vitamins and the risk of ARM. Using baseline data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study between 2011 and 2014, we analysed data of 89 235 women (mean age at delivery = 31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Information on dietary intake was obtained via a FFQ focused on early pregnancy and used to estimate B vitamin intake. We also collected information on the frequency of folic acid supplement use. ARM occurrence was ascertained from medical records. We identified forty-three cases of ARM diagnosed up to the first month after birth (4·8 per 10 000 live births). In terms of individual intake of the respective B vitamins, high vitamin B6 intake was non-significantly associated with reduced odds of ARM. Compared with women in the low combined B vitamin intake group, the OR of having an infant with ARM was 0·4 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·0) in the high intake group (folate ≥400 μg/d, and upper half of vitamin B6 and/or vitamin B12). In conclusion, our cohort analysis suggested an inverse association between the combined intake of one-carbon metabolism-related B vitamins in early pregnancy and ARM occurrence.
The pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is largely unknown; however, vitamin A seems to play a role in diaphragmatic development. Previous case–control studies reported that maternal dietary vitamin A intake was inversely associated with the risk of CDH. To our knowledge, however, there is no prospective evidence regarding this association. Our aim was to examine whether maternal intake of vitamin A was associated with CDH occurrence. Baseline data, from the Japan nationwide birth cohort study (2011–2014) of 89 658 mothers (mean age at delivery = 31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births, were analysed. We assessed dietary habits using an FFQ focused on the first trimester and estimated the daily intake of total vitamin A (retinol activity equivalents), retinol, provitamin A carotenoids and vegetables. The occurrence of CDH was ascertained from medical records. A total of forty cases of CDH were documented. The adjusted OR of CDH occurrence for the high total vitamin A intake category (median = 468 μg/d) was 0·6 (95 % CI 0·3, 1·2) with reference to the low intake category (230 μg/d). When we restricted to mothers with a prepregnancy BMI of 18·5–24·9 kg/m2, vitamin A intake was inversely associated with the risk of their children being born with CDH (OR 0·5, 95 % CI 0·2, 1·0). Even given the limited number of cases in the study, our findings provide additional evidence to link vitamin A with CDH.
Current evidence suggests that the aetiology of congenital gastrointestinal (GI) tract atresia is multifactorial, and not based solely on genetic factors. However, there are no established modifiable risk factors for congenital GI tract atresia. We used data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study launched in 2011, and examined whether fish consumption in early pregnancy was associated with congenital GI tract atresia. We analysed data of 89 495 women (mean age at delivery=31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Based on the results of the FFQ, we estimated the daily intake of fish and n-3 PUFA consumption in early pregnancy. We defined a composite outcome (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, jejunoileal atresia and/or anorectal malformation) as congenital GI tract atresia. In this population, median fish intake was 31·9 g/d, and seventy-four cases of congenital GI tract atresia were identified. Fish consumption in early pregnancy was inversely associated with the composite outcome (multivariable-adjusted OR for the high v. low consumption category=0·5, 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0). For all the specific types of atresia, decreased OR were observed in the high consumption category, although not statistically significant. Reduced atresia occurrence was observed even beyond the US Food and Drug Administration’s recommended consumption of no more than 340 g/week. Also, n-3 PUFA-rich fish and n-3 PUFA consumptions tended to be inversely associated with atresia. Fish consumption in early pregnancy may be a preventive factor for congenital GI tract atresia.
Single photon sources (SPS) are an important building block for realizing quantum technologies for computing, communication, and sensing. For industrialization, electrically controllable color centers acting as SPS are required. We have demonstrated the creation of electrically controllable silicon vacancies (VSis) in the SiC pn junction diode fabricated by proton beam writing (PBW). PBW was successfully used to introduce electrically controllable VSi without degradation of the diode performance. The dependence of the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) intensities from VSi on H+ fluence revealed that the emission efficiency of EL is less than that of PL. For EL, the supply of carriers (electrons and/or holes) was restricted due to the resistive region around each VSi introduced by PBW. The results suggest that further improvement in the VSi creation process without defects acting as majority carrier removal centers (highly resistive region) and nonradiative centers by optimization of PBW conditions are key points to realize highly sensitive quantum sensors using VSi.
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