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Light trapping is one of the key challenges for the next generation of thin film solar cells. In this work, we have identified the distinct light trapping effects for short and long wavelength solar spectrum ranges, by investigating lighting trapping structures on both sides of Si thin film solar cells. The sub-wavelength moth-eye-like photonic front surface and multi-layer grating photonic crystal reflector on the bottom surface are studied in detail via the Finite Difference Time Domain method for its solar energy absorption characteristics. Our study reveals the drastic difference in the light trapping effects within the solar spectrum wavelength. This work may provide guidance for efficiency enhancement of next generation thin film photovoltaic cells.
The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (CHDS) was assessed. Interrater reliability was excellent, the item total-score correlations were good, and the internal reliability was satisfactory. The concurrent validity was tested by correlating the CHDS score with the Global Assessment Scale score; the strong negative correlation found indicated that the CHDS reflects the overall level of disability. Five distinct factors were generated by principle-component analysis; these factors account for 52.4% of the total variance. Rigorous evaluation of the numerous translated scales being used in clinical and research settings of non-Western countries is important.
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