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In recent years, a Trigonorhinus sp. (Coleoptera) has caused serious damage to Caragana liouana Zhao Y. Chang and Yakovlev, a major ecological restoration shrub in China. Here, we survey the occurrence and damage pattern of Trigonorhinus sp. and its galls and compare the growth of affected and unaffected plants. Trigonorhinus sp. larvae usually infest the main trunk and lateral branches of the plant, causing the affected branches to become partially swollen and verrucose. Galls develop in stages depending on whether eggs are laid in May or July and proceed in sequence over three years from egg-laying to formation, expansion, dormancy, maturity, dormancy, maturity, and death. Galls inhibit plant development to some extent. On average, six (at least one, and no more than 18; standard error of the mean = 3) larvae occupy each gall, and the number of larvae within a gall did not significantly affect gall size. Gall size significantly affected branch dieback, and large-diameter infested branches had larger galls. This study clarifies the growth dynamics of Trigonorhinus sp. galls and provides a basis for further research into the growth mechanism of the species’ galls.
Concentrations of IgA and IgM in milk from normal lactating cows were measured to determine whether they were affected by lactation number, lactation stage, daily milk production, milk composition and somatic cell score (SCS). A total of 284 Chinese Holstein cows showing no signs of mastitis were selected from more than 1600 cows from one farm. Concentrations of IgA and IgM in normal milk were determined by ELISA. Results revealed that average milk IgA and IgM concentrations were 235±11 and 32±3 μg/ml, respectively. IgA and IgM concentrations in milk were found to have an association with lactation number, stage of lactation, daily milk production and SCS. Both SCS and daily milk production were found to be strong significant (P<0·01) direct factors correlating to IgA concentration. Stage of lactation and SCS were found to be strong significant (P<0·01) direct factors correlating to IgM concentration.
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