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This study aimed to investigate the optimal frozen embryo transfer (FET) strategy for recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients with three consecutive failed cleaved embryo implantations and no blastocyst preservation. This retrospective analysis was divided into three groups based on the FET strategy: thawed day 3 embryo transfer (D3 FET group); and extended culture of frozen–thawed day 3 embryos to day 5 blastocysts transfer (D3–D5 FET group); thawed blastocyst transfer (D5 FET group). Transplant cycle data were compared between the three groups. In total, 43.8% of vitrified–thawed cleavage embryos developed into blastocysts. Analysis of the three transplantation strategies showed that, compared with the D3 FET group, D3–D5 had a significantly better hCG-positivity rate and live-birth rate (P < 0.05). Pregnancy outcomes in the D3–D5 FET group and D5 FET group were similar regarding hCG-positivity rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live-birth rate. Our findings propose two potentially valuable transfer strategies for patients experiencing repeated implantation failures. The D3–D5 FET approach presents a greater potential for selecting promising embryos in cases without blastocyst preservation; however, this strategy does entail the risk of cycle cancellation. Conversely, in instances where blastocyst preservation is an option, prioritizing consideration of the D5 FET strategy is recommended.
There is growing evidence that gray matter atrophy is constrained by normal brain network (or connectome) architecture in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether this finding holds true in individuals with depression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gray matter atrophy and normal connectome architecture at individual level in depression.
In this study, 297 patients with depression and 256 healthy controls (HCs) from two independent Chinese dataset were included: a discovery dataset (105 never-treated first-episode patients and matched 130 HCs) and a replication dataset (106 patients and matched 126 HCs). For each patient, individualized regional atrophy was assessed using normative model and brain regions whose structural connectome profiles in HCs most resembled the atrophy patterns were identified as putative epicenters using a backfoward stepwise regression analysis.
In general, the structural connectome architecture of the identified disease epicenters significantly explained 44% (±16%) variance of gray matter atrophy. While patients with depression demonstrated tremendous interindividual variations in the number and distribution of disease epicenters, several disease epicenters with higher participation coefficient than randomly selected regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and medial frontal gyrus were significantly shared by depression. Other brain regions with strong structural connections to the disease epicenters exhibited greater vulnerability. In addition, the association between connectome and gray matter atrophy uncovered two distinct subgroups with different ages of onset.
These results suggest that gray matter atrophy is constrained by structural brain connectome and elucidate the possible pathological progression in depression.
This study investigates the linear instability of a thin-film coating inside a rigid tube. The flow is assumed to be inertialess and driven by an axial body force (e.g. gravity), an interfacial shearing force, or their combinations. The interface and the bulk of the film are laden with soluble surfactant. The properties of the soluble surfactant, i.e. solubility, sorption kinetics and bulk diffusivity, modulate the interfacial dynamics of the film. The influence of these properties on the linear instability of the film is comprehensively investigated via long-wave approximation analysis and numerical calculation. Two modes, namely the interface mode and the surfactant mode, are identified to dominate the instability. For a quiescent film, it is found that solubility, sorption kinetics and bulk diffusivity act to improve the uniformity of the surface surfactant and mitigate the stabilizing effect of the Marangoni force. For the film driven by the axial body/interfacial shearing force, the results reveal that solubility plays contrasting roles in the interface mode and the surfactant mode. A window with intermediate solubility is detected where the film can be linearly stabilized. Moreover, sorption kinetics is found to destabilize the perturbations with long wavelength whereas it stabilizes the perturbations with finite wavelength. The bulk diffusivity of the surfactant has a non-monotonic influence on the flow instability, and the film can be relatively stable at both strong and weak diffusivity.
A novel data-driven modal analysis method, reduced-order variational mode decomposition (RVMD), is proposed, inspired by the Hilbert–Huang transform and variational mode decomposition (VMD), to resolve transient or statistically non-stationary flow dynamics. First, the form of RVMD modes (referred to as an ‘elementary low-order dynamic process’, ELD) is constructed by combining low-order representation and the idea of intrinsic mode function, which enables the computed modes to characterize the non-stationary properties of space–time fluid flows. Then, the RVMD algorithm is designed based on VMD to achieve a low-redundant adaptive extraction of ELDs in flow data, with the modes computed by solving an elaborate optimization problem. Further, a combination of RVMD and Hilbert spectral analysis leads to a modal-based time-frequency analysis framework in the Hilbert view, providing a potentially powerful tool to discover, quantify and analyse the transient and non-stationary dynamics in complex flow problems. To provide a comprehensive evaluation, the computational cost and parameter dependence of RVMD are discussed, as well as the relations between RVMD and some classic modal decomposition methods. Finally, the virtues and utility of RVMD and the modal-based time-frequency analysis framework are well demonstrated via two canonical problems: the transient cylinder wake and the planar supersonic screeching jet.
Two thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) are major pests of cowpea in South China. To realistically compare the growth, development and reproductive characteristics of these two thrips species, we compared their age-stage, two-sex life tables on cowpea pods under summer and winter natural environmental regimes. The results showed that the total preadult period of M. usitatus was 8.09 days, which was significantly longer than that of F. intonsa (7.06 days), while the adult female longevity of M. usitatus (21.14 days) was significantly shorter than that of F. intonsa (25.77 days). Significant differences were showed in male adult longevity (10.68 days for F. intonsa and 16.95 days for M. usitatus) and the female ratio of offspring (0.67 for F. intonsa and 0.51 for M. usitatus), and the total preadult period of M. usitatus (16.20 days) was significantly longer than that of F. intonsa (13.66 days) in the winter regime. The net reproductive rate (summer: R0 = 85.62, winter: R0 = 105.22), intrinsic rate of increase (summer: r = 0.3020 day−1, winter: r = 0.2115 day−1), finite rate of increase (summer: λ = 1.3526 day−1, winter: λ = 1.2356 day−1) and gross reproduction rate (summer: GRR = 139.34, winter: GRR = 159.88) of F. intonsa were higher than those of M. usitatus (summer: R0 = 82.91, r = 0.2741, λ = 1.3155, GRR = 135.71; winter: R0 = 80.62, r = 0.1672, λ = 1.1820, GRR = 131.26), and the mean generation times (summer: T = 14.73 days, winter: T = 22.01 days) of F. intonsa were significantly shorter than those of M. usitatus (summer: T = 16.11 days, winter: T = 26.25 days). These results may contribute to a better understanding of the bioecology of different thrips species, especially the interspecific competition between two economically important cowpea thrips with the same ecological niche in a changing environment.
Large gatherings of people on cruise ships and warships are often at high risk of COVID-19 infections. To assess the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 on warships and cruise ships and to quantify the effectiveness of the containment measures, the transmission coefficient (β), basic reproductive number (R0), and time to deploy containment measures were estimated by the Bayesian Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered model. A meta-analysis was conducted to predict vaccine protection with or without non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). The analysis showed that implementing NPIs during voyages could reduce the transmission coefficients of SARS-CoV-2 by 50%. Two weeks into the voyage of a cruise that begins with 1 infected passenger out of a total of 3,711 passengers, we estimate there would be 45 (95% CI:25-71), 33 (95% CI:20-52), 18 (95% CI:11-26), 9 (95% CI:6-12), 4 (95% CI:3-5), and 2 (95% CI:2-2) final cases under 0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% vaccine protection, respectively, without NPIs. The timeliness of strict NPIs along with implementing strict quarantine and isolation measures is imperative to contain COVID-19 cases in cruise ships. The spread of COVID-19 on ships was predicted to be limited in scenarios corresponding to at least 70% protection from prior vaccination, across all passengers and crew.
There is limited literature on associations between inflammatory tone and response to sequential pharmacotherapies in major depressive disorder (MDD).
In a 16-week open-label clinical trial, 211 participants with MDD were treated with escitalopram 10–20 mg daily for 8 weeks. Responders continued escitalopram while non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole 2–10 mg daily for 8 weeks. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers—C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-gamma (IFN)-Γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Chemokine C–C motif ligand-2 (CCL-2)—measured at baseline, and after 2, 8 and 16 weeks were included in logistic regression analyzes to assess associations between inflammatory markers and treatment response.
Pre-treatment IFN-Γ and CCL-2 levels were significantly associated with a lower of odds of response to escitalopram at 8 weeks. Increases in CCL-2 levels from weeks 8 to 16 in escitalopram non-responders were significantly associated with higher odds of non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole at week 16.
Higher pre-treatment levels of IFN-Γ and CCL-2 were associated with non-response to escitalopram. Increasing levels of these pro-inflammatory markers may be associated with non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole. These findings require validation in independent clinical populations.
Recent Delaware Chancery Court decisions that boards are self-interested in setting director compensation have focused scrutiny on the pay-setting process used by corporations. We examine the effect of peer benchmarking on director compensation decisions. Director pay relates positively to peer director pay, and firms paying their directors highly are selected as peers. Moreover, firm performance and board advising performance are positively related to the talent component and are generally unrelated to the self-serving component of the peer pay effect. The evidence indicates that firms use peer benchmarking to justify high compensation mainly to attract talented directors to enhance board quality.
Objectives: Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Previous studies have shown that a care bundle is effective in reducing CLABSI rates; however, the data on long-term sustainability and cost savings of bundled care are limited. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2020, a prospective surveillance was performed to monitor CLABSI at a university hospital in northern Taiwan. To reduce the CLABSI rate, a hospital-wide bundled care program for CLABSI prevention was implemented in 2013. We evaluated the long-term effect of the care bundle on CLABSI incidence and length of stay in the ICU. Results: During the study period, the overall CLABSI incidence decreased from 8.22 per 1,000 catheter days before the care bundle was implemented to 6.33 per 1,000 catheter days in 2020 (P for trend <.01). The most common pathogens causing CLABSI were gut organisms (1,420 of 2,363, 60.1%), followed by environmental organisms (734 of 2,363, 31.1%) and skin organisms (177 of 2,363, 7.5%). The decreasing trend was statistically significant in the incidence of CLABSI caused by skin organisms (P for trend < .01), but not in the incidence of CLABSI caused by environmental organisms (P for trend = .86) or gut organisms (P for trend = .06). In the multivariable analysis, implementation of this care bundle was independently associated with a decrease in the CLABSI rate (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.88). Compared with patients without CLABSI, patients with CLABSI had a longer average ICU length of stay (27 vs 17 days). Conclusions: A sustainable reduction in the incidence of CLABSI caused by common commensals could be achieved through a cost-saving bundled care program.
The surface wave instability (SWI) of thermocapillary migration is examined by linear stability analysis for a droplet on a unidirectional heated plane. Both a Newtonian fluid and an Oldroyd-B fluid are considered. The droplet, flattened by gravity, is susceptible to two kinds of instabilities: convective instability (CI), which is independent of surface deformation; and SWI, which occurs only when the Galileo number and the surface-tension number are not too large. The wavenumber of the latter is much smaller than that of the former, while the reverse is true for the wave speed. SWI is found at different Prandtl numbers (Pr), while its mode includes streamwise and oblique waves. Energy analysis suggests that the energy of the long-wave mode comes from the shear stress induced by the surface deformation, the energy source for the mode with finite wavelength is the work done by Marangoni forces, while the energy from the basic flow is only important in some cases at small Pr. For the Oldroyd-B fluid, a small elasticity slightly changes the critical Marangoni number of SWI, while larger elasticity changes the preferred mode from SWI to CI. The instability mechanism is discussed and comparisons are made with experimental results.
To integrate the uneven terrain adaptivity of legged robots and the fast capacity of wheeled robots on even terrains, a four wheel-legged robot is addressed and the cooperative control strategy of wheels and legs based on attitude balance is investigated. Firstly, the kinematics of wheel-legged robot is analyzed, which contains the legged and wheeled motion modal. Secondly, the cooperative control strategy of wheel-legged robot based on attitude balance is proposed. The attitude is calculated by using the quaternion method and complementary filtering, and the attitude stability control of the wheel-legged robot is studied. The trajectory planning of leg motion including walk and trot gait is implemented, and the differential control of wheeled motion is deduced. And then, the cooperative motion control of wheels and legs is achieved by keeping the attitude balance of robot body. Finally, a small prototype is set up to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed method. The experimental results show that the established wheel-legged robot can do walk, trot, and wheel-leg compound motion to overcome many complex terrains and environments.
Gradual typing allows programs to enjoy the benefits of both static typing and dynamic typing. While it is often desirable to migrate a program from more dynamically typed to more statically typed or vice versa, gradual typing itself does not provide a way to facilitate this migration. This places the burden on programmers who have to manually add or remove type annotations. Besides the general challenge of adding type annotations to dynamically typed code, there are subtle interactions between these annotations in gradually typed code that exacerbate the situation. For example, to migrate a program to be as static as possible, in general, all possible combinations of adding or removing type annotations from parameters must be tried out and compared. In this paper, we address this problem by developing migrational typing, which efficiently types all possible ways of replacing dynamic types with fully static types for a gradually typed program. The typing result supports automatically migrating a program to be as static as possible or introducing the least number of dynamic types necessary to remove a type error. The approach can be extended to support user-defined criteria about which annotations to modify. We have implemented migrational typing and evaluated it on large programs. The results show that migrational typing scales linearly with the size of the program and takes only 2–4 times longer than plain gradual typing.
This paper examines whether changes in US presidential administration and central bank turnover during the period 1976–2016 caused regime shifts in Taylor rule deviations. Using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model to construct the welfare-maximizing policy rule and deviations from the optimal rule, we find evidence that politics indeed play a key role in explaining these deviations. In addition to politics, unemployment rates and the interest rate spread significantly account for regime shifts in Taylor rule deviations.
Problematic internet use, especially in people with substance use disorder, may negatively affect their quality of life (QoL). However, it is unclear whether sleep quality is a key mediator in the association between problematic internet use and QoL among people with substance use disorder.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between problematic internet use and QoL and how sleep quality may mediate the association between these two variables.
Overall, 319 people (85% male) with substance use disorder (mean age 42.2 years, s.d. 8.9) participated in a cross-sectional study in Taiwan. The Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale, Bergan Social Media Addiction Scale, Internet Gaming Disorder-Short Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire Brief Version were used.
The prevalence of sleep problems was 56%. There were significant and direct associations between sleep quality and two types of problematic internet use, and between sleep quality and different dimensions of QoL. All types of problematic internet use were significantly and negatively correlated with QoL. Mediated effects of sleep quality in relationships between the different types of problematic internet use and all dimensions of QoL were significant, except for problematic use of social media.
Different types of problematic internet use in people with substance use disorder may be directly associated with reduced QoL. Sleep quality as a significant mediator in this association may be an underlying mechanism to explain pathways between problematic internet use and QoL in this population.
In this paper, effects of discharge parameters and modulation frequency on the signal of laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ion velocity distribution functions are investigated in the LIF Test Source. A maximum modulation frequency is found for each given set of parameters, beyond which the signal gradually declines. Meanwhile, this maximum modulation frequency occurred consistently at ~1/10 of the theoretical frequency limit and photon counts received by a photomultiplier tube, which indicates that as modulation frequency and the associated per-pulse-excitation-event count decrease, the transition from the macroscopic statistical signal to the microscopic probabilistic signal is a gradual process.
Little is known about how sociodemographic and clinical factors affect the caregiving burden of persons with schizophrenia (PwSs) with transition in primary caregivers.
This study aimed to examine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors on the caregiving burden of PwSs with and without caregiver transition from 1994 to 2015 in rural China.
Using panel data, 206 dyads of PwSs and their primary caregivers were investigated in both 1994 and 2015. The generalised linear model approach was used to examine the predictive effects of sociodemographic factors, severity of symptoms and changes in social functioning on the caregiving burden with and without caregiver transition.
The percentages of families with and without caregiver transition were 38.8% and 61.2%, respectively. Among families without caregiver transition, a heavier burden was significantly related to a larger family size and more severe symptoms in PwSs. Deteriorated functioning of ‘social activities outside the household’ and improved functioning of ‘activity in the household’ were protective factors against a heavy caregiving burden. Among families with caregiver transition, younger age, improved marital functioning, deteriorated self-care functioning, and better functioning of ‘social interest or concern’ were significant risk factors for caregiving burden.
The effects of sociodemographic and clinical correlates on the caregiving burden were different among families with and without caregiver transition. It is crucial to explore the caregiver arrangement of PwSs and the risk factors for burden over time, which will facilitate culture-specific family interventions, community-based mental health services and recovery.
Hibernation is a biological status during which hibernating animals acclimatize themselves to reduced energy consumption through extreme but governed decline in self-metabolism. The role of mitochondria (Mt) in metabolic suppression during hibernation has already been elaborated in different organs and species. Nonetheless, the concretely changing process of mitochondrial architecture and the mechanism underlying this transformation during hibernation remains unclear. Herein, the present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed alteration of mitochondrial morphology and its potential role in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) during different stages of hibernation. Compared with the nonhibernation period, the mitochondrial architecture was changing from round to crescent, and lipid droplet (LD)/Mt interaction was enhanced during hibernation, as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further ultrastructural analysis uncovered that mitochondrial fusion was promptly accelerated in the early stage of hibernation, followed by mitochondrial fission in the middle stage, and mitophagy was boosted in the late stage. Moreover, gene and protein expression related to mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitophagy accorded closely with the mitochondrial ultrastructural changes in different stages of hibernation. Taken together, our results clarified that the transformation of mitochondrial architecture and mitochondrial dynamics are of vital importance in maintaining internal environment homeostasis of Pelodiscus sinensis.
For individual cultures, findings on regulating embryo density by changing the microdrop volume are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between embryo density and the developmental outcome of day 3 embryos after adjusting covariates. In total, 1196 embryos from 206 couples who had undergone in vitro fertilization treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Three embryo densities were used routinely, i.e. one embryo in a drop (30 μl/embryo), two embryos in a drop (15 μl/embryo) and three embryos in a drop (10 μl/embryo). Embryo quality on day 3 was evaluated, both the cell number of day 3 embryos and the proportion of successful implantations served as endpoints. Maternal age, paternal age, antral follicles and level of anti-Müllerian hormone, type of infertility, controlled ovarian stimulation protocol, length of stimulation, number of retrieved oocytes, number of zygotes (two pronuclei) and insemination type were covariates and adjusted. After adjusting fully for all covariates, the cell number of day 3 embryos was significantly increased by 0.40 (95% CI 0.00, 0.79; P = 0.048) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.02, 1.54; P = 0.044) in the 15 μl/embryo and 10 μl/embryo group separately, compared with the 30 μl/embryo group. The proportions of implanted embryos were 42.1%, 48.7% and 0.0% in the 30 μl/embryo, 15 μl/embryo and 10 μl/embryo groups respectively. There was no statistical significance (P = 0.22) between the 30 μl/embryo group and the 15 μl/embryo group. After adjusting for confounders that were significant in univariate analysis, embryo density was still not associated with day 3 embryo implantation potential (P > 0.05). In a 30-μl microdrop, culturing embryos with an embryo density of both 15 and 10 μl/embryo increased the cell number of day 3 embryos, which did not benefit embryo implanting potential, compared with individual culture of 30 μl/embryo.