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This study aimed to identify patterns of anthropometric trajectories throughout life and to analyse their association with the occurrence of sarcopenia in people from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). It is a cross-sectional study involving 9670 public servants, aged 38–79 years, who answered the call for new data collection and exams, conducted approximately 4 years after the study baseline (2012–2014). Data sequence analysis was used to identify patterns of anthropometric trajectory. A theoretical model was elaborated based on the directed acyclic graph (DAG) to select the variables of minimum adjustment in the analysis of the causal effect between trajectory and sarcopenia. Poisson regression with robust variance was adopted for data analysis. The patterns of change in the anthropometric trajectory were classified in stable weight (T1); change to normal weight (T2); change to excess weight (T3); weight fluctuation (T4) and change to low weight (T5). The prevalence of sarcopenia in men and women who changed the anthropometric path for the low weight was twice as large when compared to participants with a stable weight trajectory. A protective effect of the excess weight trajectory was observed for the occurrence of sarcopenia in them. The results pointed to the need for health policies that encourage the proper management of body components in order to prevent and control obesity, as well as to preserve the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle mass throughout life, especially in older adults.
To estimate changes in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension associated with consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) by Brazilian civil servants at a 4-year follow-up.
Longitudinal analysis of the ELSA-Brasil with non-hypertensive individuals at baseline. We applied the FFQ at the baseline and categorised energy intake by degree of processing, using the NOVA classification. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at baseline (2008–2010) and again at first follow-up (2012–2014). Incidence of arterial hypertension was defined as SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or antihypertensive medication during the previous 2 weeks. A mixed-effect linear regression model and mixed-effect logistic regression model were used to estimate associations between UPF consumption and, respectively, changes in blood pressure and incidence of hypertension.
Civil servants of Brazilian public academic institutions in six cities (n 8754), aged 35–74 years at baseline (2008–2010).
UPF consumption contributed 25·2 % (sd = 9·6) of total energies consumed. After adjustment, participants with high UPF consumption presented a 23 % greater risk of developing hypertension (OR = 1·23, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·44) than those with low UPF consumption. We did not find association between UPF consumption and changes in blood pressure over time.
The higher the UPF consumption, the higher the risk of hypertension in adults. Reducing UPF consumption is thus important to promote health and prevent hypertension.
To identify dietary patterns associated with subclinical atherosclerosis measured as coronary artery calcification (CAC).
Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. Dietary data were assessed using a FFQ, and a principal component factor analysis was used to derive the dietary patterns. Scree plot, eigenvalues > 1 and interpretability were considered to retain the factors. CAC was measured using a computed tomography scanner and an electrocardiography-gated prospective Ca score examination and was categorised into three groups based on the CAC score: 0, 1–100 and >100 Agatston units. Multinomial regression models were conducted for dietary patterns and CAC severity categories.
Brazil, São Paulo, 2008–2010.
Active and retired civil servants who lived in São Paulo and underwent a CAC exam were included (n 4025).
Around 10 % of participants (294 men, 97 women) had a detectable CAC (>0), 6·5 % (182 men, 73 women) had a CAC of 1–100 and 3·5 % (110 men, 23 women) had a CAC > 100. Three dietary patterns were identified: convenience food, which was positively associated with atherosclerotic calcification; plant-based and dairy food, which showed no association with CAC; and the traditional Brazilian food pattern (rice, legumes and meats), which was inversely associated with atherosclerotic calcification.
Our results showed that a dietary pattern consisting of traditional Brazilian foods could be important to reducing the risk of atherosclerotic calcification and prevent future cardiovascular events, whereas a convenience dietary pattern was positively associated with this outcome.
To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with gains in weight and waist circumference, and incident overweight/obesity, in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort.
We applied FFQ at baseline and categorized energy intake by degree of processing using the NOVA classification. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean 3·8-year follow-up. We assessed associations, through Poisson regression with robust variance, of UPF consumption with large weight gain (1·68 kg/year) and large waist gain (2·42 cm/year), both being defined as ≥90th percentile in the cohort, and with incident overweight/obesity.
Civil servants of Brazilian public academic institutions in six cities (n 11 827), aged 35–74 years at baseline (2008–2010).
UPF provided a mean 24·6 (sd 9·6) % of ingested energy. After adjustment for smoking, physical activity, adiposity and other factors, fourth (>30·8 %) v. first (<17·8 %) quartile of UPF consumption was associated (relative risk (95 % CI)) with 27 and 33 % greater risk of large weight and waist gains (1·27 (1·07, 1·50) and 1·33 (1·12, 1·58)), respectively. Similarly, those in the fourth consumption quartile presented 20 % greater risk (1·20 (1·03, 1·40)) of incident overweight/obesity and 2 % greater risk (1·02; (0·85, 1·21)) of incident obesity. Approximately 15 % of cases of large weight and waist gains and of incident overweight/obesity could be attributed to consumption of >17·8 % of energy as UPF.
Greater UPF consumption predicts large gains in overall and central adiposity and may contribute to the inexorable rise in obesity seen worldwide.
To identify generational differences in the dietary patterns of Brazilian adults born between 1934 and 1975.
A cross-sectional study from the baseline of the multicentre Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. Year of birth was categorized into three birth generations: Traditionalists (born between 1934 and 1945); Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964); and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1975). Food consumption was investigated using an FFQ. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify data-driven dietary patterns.
Individuals (n 15 069) aged 35–74 years.
A three-class model was generated from the LCA for each birth generation. Generation X presented higher energy intakes (kJ/kcal) from soft drinks (377·4/90·2) and sweets (1262·3/301·7) and lower energy intakes from fruit (1502·5/359·1) and vegetables (311·3/74·4) than Baby Boomers (283·7/67·8, 1047·7/250·4, 1756·0/419·7 and 365·3/87·3, respectively) and Traditionalists (186·2/44·5, 518·8/124·0, 1947·7/465·5 and 404·6/96·7, respectively). For Baby Boomers and Generation X, we found food patterns with similar structures: mixed pattern (22·7 and 29·7 %, respectively), prudent pattern (43·5 and 34·9 %, respectively) and processed pattern (33·8 and 35·4 %, respectively). Among Traditionalists, we could also identify mixed (30·9 %) and prudent (21·8 %) patterns, and a third pattern, named restricted dietary pattern (47·3 %).
The younger generation presented higher frequencies of consuming a pattern characterized by a low nutritional diet, compared with other generations, indicating that they may age with a greater burden of chronic diseases. It is important to develop public health interventions promoting healthy foods, focusing on the youngest generations.
In the present study we investigated gender-specific associations of low birth weight (LBW) and shorter relative leg length with metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviours. We also investigated whether these associations are independent of age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old.
Baseline data from 12 602 participants (35–74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), 2008–2010.
MetS was defined according to the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. LBW (<2·5 kg) and age- and sex-standardized relative leg length (high, medium and low) were the explanatory variables studied. The strength of the associations between the explanatory variables and MetS was estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance.
MetS prevalence was 34·2 %; it was more prevalent in men (36·8 %) than in women (32·2 %). In multivariate analysis, LBW was associated (prevalence ratio; 95 % CI) with MetS only in women (1·28; 1·24, 1·45). Shorter leg length was associated with MetS in both men (1·21; 1·09, 1·35 and 1·46; 1·29, 1·65 for low and medium lengths, respectively) and women (1·12; 1·00, 1·25 and 1·40; 1·22, 1·59 for low and medium lengths, respectively). Additional adjustments for age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old did not change the associations.
Poor nutritional status as estimated by LBW and lower leg length in childhood was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS, although LBW was a significant factor only among women.
Previous studies have shown associations of variants of the FTO gene with body weight, but none of these have involved Latin American populations with a high level of miscegenation, as is seen in the north-eastern Brazilian population. This study evaluated the association between SNP in the FTO gene and excess weight in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. In addition, the effect of diet as a modifier on this association was also investigated. This cross-sectional study included 1191 participants aged 4–11 years, who were genotyped for 400 variants of the FTO gene. Direct anthropometric measures were made and dietary data were obtained by 24-h food recall. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of interest. Overall, 11·2 % of the individuals included in the study were overweight/obese. Interactions were identified between the percentage energy intake from proteins and obesity risk linked to the rs62048379 SNP (Pinteraction=0·01) and also between fat intake (PUFA:SFA ratio) and obesity risk linked to the rs62048379 SNP (Pinteraction=0·01). The T allele for the variant rs62048379 was positively associated with overweight/obesity in individuals whose percentage energy intake from protein was above the median (OR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·05, 3·82). The rs62048379 SNP was also associated with overweight/obesity in individuals whose PUFA:SFA ratio was below the median (OR 1·63; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·55). The association between FTO gene variants and excess body weight can be modulated by dietary characteristics, particularly by fatty acid distribution and dietary protein intake in children.
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