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In this paper, we provide an overview of the history and sociolinguistic setting of Germans and German in Namibia, which serves as a backdrop for our discussion of two grammatical innovations in Namibian German. German has been actively used in Namibia since the 1880s, having been brought to the country through colonization, and it remains linguistically vital today. Via a questionnaire study, we investigate the expanded use of two grammatical innovations in Namibian German, namely, i) linking elements and ii) gehen as a future auxiliary. We explore various factors that could have contributed to the emergence of these innovations in order to better understand the dynamics of German in multilingual Namibia.*
While other mental health care outpatient facilities were moved to COVID-centers in March 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in Kashmir remained the only functional outpatient facility in the region. It is the only mental health care hospital in the country with a residential facility for psychiatric inpatients catering to the whole population of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The Mental Health Care Act 2017 that neccesitated “halfway homes” is yet to be implemented in the state leaving it's inpatients entirely under the institution's care. This study is to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-COVID-19 virus in the 34 residential inpatients in separate male (23 patients) and female (11 patients) wards. This was done as an audit to strategies and measures taken by the institute in protecting it's inpatients.
3 to 5 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected and plasma extracted and analysed using the CE-IVD Roche Cobas Elecsys AntiSARS-CoV-2, Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA) for the qualitative detection of total Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA; Pan Ig) generated against SARS-CoV-2 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA). The test was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Out of the 34 inpatients, 2 male inpatients tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (seroprevalence of 5.88%). In comparison, based on a report conducted by the government's Department of Community Medicine and Biochemistry on the 28th of October 2020, out of 2,361 participants in the community, 959 tested positive (seroprevalence of 40.6%).
One of the inpatients that tested positive was re-admitted after testing negative via RT-PCR. The second patient was admitted after being found homeless. He was tested negative on day 1 via RAT and on day 5 via RT-PCR. We believe both of them aquired the infection in the community.
This audit shows that the strategies implemented by the institute were effective in the prevention of the spread of COVID-19. Practical implementations of what works and improvisations are the proven methods of decreasing the mortality and morbidity in vulnerable populations while continuously providing vital mental health services.
Developing community writing systems in marginalized communities may have many benefits. These range from improved self-esteem and visibility of the language, for written communication and the production of materials. Writing is essential for education: both mother tongue-based multilingual education and immersion teaching for revitalization. This chapter reviews practical and ideological considerations in writing oral languages, exploring motivations behind spelling and script choices. It is essential that communities be in control of all activities that aim at establishing community orthographies for their languages – above all, community members must wish to have their languages written. Key factors in designing effective orthographies are considered, including examples of scripts adopted by minority languages and factors that have influenced their choices. One individual recounts his personal journey to writing and creating literature in his language, Wymysiöeryś. Examples are also given of how curriculum development and research are shaped by a focus on Nahuatl ways of thinking and organizing knowledge.
Teaching is the main or even only way to pass on ancestral languages when intergenerational language transmission no longer takes place. The main reason for the interruption of natural language transmission is an increasing weakening of community bonds due to intermarriage, migration, and mobility. The formal or informal teaching of ancestral languages is therefore at the core of language revival and language revitalization movements. The article reviews favorable conditions and supportive factors for the teaching of ancestral languages from different parts of the world, and highlights the important role of dedicated community members in these endeavors.
Background: Studies examining trends in elderly suicide rates over time reported a decline, an increase and no change. A cross-national study was undertaken to examine the current status of trends over time in elderly suicide rates because previous cross-national studies were well over a decade old.
Methods: Trends in suicide rates for males and females in the age-bands 65–74 years and 75+ years over a 10-year period were examined using data from the World Health Organization website for all the listed countries.
Results: The main findings were: (1) elderly suicide rates either declined or remained unchanged over the 10-year period in most countries; and, (2) suicide rates in both sexes in both the age-bands, over the 10-year period, declined in several European countries, and remained unchanged in several Central and South American countries, Eastern European countries and countries of the former Soviet Union.
Conclusions: Potential explanations for regional and cross-national variations in trends over time in elderly suicide rates include cross-national differences in trends over time in the prevalence of mental illness in the elderly, socioeconomic factors, cultural factors, the availability of appropriate healthcare services, and public health initiatives to improve the detection and treatment of mental illness, mental health and suicide prevention.
Ajit Shah, John Connolly Unit West London Mental Health NHS Trust Uxbridge Road Southall Middlesex UB1 3EU UK,
Sheena MacKenzie, Old Age Psychiatry West London Mental Health NHS Trust Uxbridge Road Southall Middlesex UB1 3EU UK
Human beings age but the response to age, ageing and the aged is very strongly influenced by cultures. In some cultures 80-year-old males or females marrying partners younger than them barely raise an eyebrow. However, in others, once an individual has reached the age of 60, celebrations to mark the occasion include ‘remarrying’ their spouse. The respect offered to the aged is dictated by cultural values and social roles. The longevity of individuals varies across cultures consequent to a number of factors including genetic, physical, dietary and other environmental factors. The response to ageing is largely social and cultural, from involving the aged in familial decisions to placing them out of sight in nursing homes. With an increase in longevity, the population of elderly is also becoming larger in many cultures.
Shah and MacKenzie provide not only background information on international and some national demographic changes, but they also illustrate cultural differences in epidemiological findings and related social factors. Use of cognitive tests (developed in Western countries) in individuals from low-income countries, rural areas, different concepts of orientation in time and place in different cultures and preferential use of the Western or traditional calendar all play a role in confounding the diagnosis of conditions such as dementia. The expression of depression across different cultures and also differing vocabulary and language to express emotions and feelings influence the way in which diagnosis can be influenced. Shah and MacKenzie use examples of existing diagnostic instruments to illustrate problems of category fallacy.
Background: Socioeconomic status may influence cross-national variations in elderly suicide rates.
Methods: The relationship between suicide rates in both sexes in the age-bands 65–74 years and 75+ years and (i) life expectancy, (ii) measures of socioeconomic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient), and (iii) measures of the quality and quantity of available healthcare services (the proportion of GDP spent on health, per capita expenditure on health and child mortality rates) was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations.
Results: The main findings were: (i) a significant negative correlation between the Gini coefficient and suicide rates for both sexes in both age-bands; (ii) a significant positive correlation between per capita expenditure on health and suicide rates for both sexes in both age-bands; (iii) the significant positive correlation between the proportion of GDP spent on health and suicide rates was only evident in males in both age-bands; (iv) a significant negative correlation between child mortality rates and suicide rates for both sexes in both age-bands; and, (v) the significant positive correlation between life expectancy and suicide rates was evident in females in both age-bands.
Conclusions: A potentially testable model with five sequential stages was proposed to explain these findings.
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