Quantum computing, sensing, and communications are emerging technologies that may circumvent known limitations of their existing traditional counterparts. While the promises of these technologies are currently narrow in scope, it is possible that they will broadly impact our lives by revolutionizing the capabilities of data centers and medical diagnostics, for example. At the heart of these technologies is the use of a quantum object to contain information, called a quantum bit or qubit. Current realizations of qubits exist in a broad variety of material systems, including individual spins in semiconductors or insulators, superconducting circuits, and trapped ions. Further advancement of qubits requires significant contributions from materials science in areas of materials selection, synthesis, fabrication, simulation and characterization. Here, we discuss some of the needs and opportunities for contributions to advance the fundamental understanding of materials used in quantum information applications.