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To examine associations between serum micronutrients and neurobehavioural function and the mediating role of sleep quality in early adolescents.
In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood samples were analysed for Fe and Zn levels. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery were used to assess sleep quality and neurobehavioural function, respectively. The logistic/linear regressions and generalised structural equation modelling were performed to estimate the associations.
In total, 226 adolescents (106 females) from the Jintan Child Cohort study.
Adolescents with low Fe (<75 μg/dl) (OR = 1·29, P = 0·04) and low Zn (<70 μg/dl) (OR = 1·58, P < 0·001) were associated with increased odds for poor sleep quality. Adolescents with low Fe and Zn were associated with fast (Fe: β = –1353·71, P = 0·002, Zn: β = –2262·01, P = 0·02) but less-accurate (Fe: β = –0·97, P = 0·04; Zn: β = –1·76, P = 0·04) performance on non-verbal reasoning task and poor sleep quality partially mediated the associations between low Fe/Zn and non-verbal reasoning (P < 0·05). Additionally, low Fe was associated with a slower reaction on spatial processing task (β = 276·94, P = 0·04), and low Zn was associated with fast (β = –1781·83, P = 0·03), but error-prone performance (β = –1·79, P = 0·04) on spatial processing ability and slower reaction speed (β = 12·82, P = 0·03) on the attention task. We observed similar trends using a cut-off point of 75 μg/dl for low serum Zn, except for the association with attention task speed (P > 0·05).
Fe and Zn deficiencies may possibly be associated with poor sleep and neurobehavioural function among early adolescents. Poor sleep may partially mediate the relationship between micronutrients and neurobehavioural function.
Neonates undergoing heart surgery for CHD are at risk for postoperative gastrointestinal complications and aspiration events. There are limited data regarding the prevalence of aspiration after neonatal cardiothoracic surgery; thus, the effects of aspiration events on this patient population are not well understood. This retrospective chart review examined the prevalence and effects of aspiration among neonates who had undergone cardiac surgery at the time of their discharge.
This study examined the prevalence of aspiration among neonates who had undergone cardiac surgery. Demographic data regarding these patients were analysed in order to determine risk factors for postoperative aspiration. Post-discharge feeding routes and therapeutic interventions were extracted to examine the time spent using alternate feeding routes because of aspiration risk or poor caloric intake. Modified barium swallow study results were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the test as a diagnostic tool.
Materials and methods
A retrospective study was undertaken of neonates who had undergone heart surgery from July, 2013 to January, 2014. Data describing patient demographics, feeding methods, and follow-up visits were recorded and compared using a χ2 test for goodness of fit and a Kaplan–Meier graph.
The patient population included 62 infants – 36 of whom were male, and 10 who were born with single-ventricle circulation. The median age at surgery was 6 days (interquartile range=4 to 10 days). Modified barium swallow study results showed that 46% of patients (n=29) aspirated or were at risk for aspiration, as indicated by laryngeal penetration. In addition, 48% (n=10) of subjects with a negative barium swallow or no swallow study demonstrated clinical aspiration events. Tube feedings were required by 66% (n=41) of the participants. The median time spent on tube feeds, whether in combination with oral feeds or exclusive use of a nasogastric or gastric tube, was 54 days; 44% (n=27) of patients received tube feedings for more than 120 days. Premature infants were significantly more likely to have aspiration events than infants delivered at full gestational age (OR p=0.002). Infants with single-ventricle circulation spent a longer time on tube feeds (median=95 days) than infants with two-ventricle defects (median=44 days); the type of cardiac defect was independent of prevalence of an aspiration event.
Aspiration is common following neonatal cardiac surgery. The modified barium swallow study is often used to identify aspiration events and to determine an infant’s risk for aspirating. This leads to a high proportion of infants who require tube feedings following neonatal cardiac surgery.
Adequate nutritional support is essential for normal infant growth and development. Infants with congenital cardiac disease are known to be at risk for growth failure. We sought to describe perioperative growth in infants undergoing surgical repair of two-ventricle congenital cardiac disease and assess for predictors of their pattern of growth.
Materials and methods
Full-term infants who underwent surgical repair of two-ventricle congenital cardiac disease at a single institution were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study performed following a larger prospective study. Infants with facial, gastrointestinal, or neurologic anomalies, trisomy chromosomal abnormality, birth weight less than 2500 grams, or those transferred to another institution before discharge home were excluded. The primary outcome was change in weight-for-age z score from surgery to discharge. Our secondary outcome variable was post-operative hospital length of stay.
A total of 76 infants met the inclusion criteria. Medain age at surgery was 5 days with a range from 1 to 44. The median weight-for-age z score at surgery was −0.2 with a range from −2.9 to 2.8 and by discharge had dropped to −1.2 with a range from −3.4 to 1.8. The median change in weight-for-age z score from surgery to discharge was −1.0 with a range from −2.3 to 0.2. Delayed post-operative nutrition (p < 0.001) and reintubation following initial post-operative extubation (p = 0.001) were associated with decrease in weight-for-age z score.
Infants undergoing repair of two-ventricle congenital cardiac disease had poor growth in the post-operative period. This may be mitigated by early initiation of post-operative nutrition.
The purpose of this study was to assess the pattern of weight change from surgical intervention to home discharge and to determine predictors of poor growth in this population of infants with congenital cardiac disease.
Neonates with functionally univentricular physiology enrolled in a prospective cohort study examining growth between March, 2003 and May, 2007 were included. Weights were collected at birth, before surgical intervention, and at hospital discharge. In addition, retrospective echocardiographic data and data about post-operative complications were reviewed. Primary outcome variables were weight-for-age z-score at discharge and change in weight-for-age z-score between surgery and discharge.
A total of 61 infants met the inclusion criteria. The mean change in weight-for-age z-score between surgery and hospital discharge was minus 1.5 plus or minus 0.8. Bivariate analysis revealed a significant difference in weight-for-age z-score between infants who were discharged on oral feeds, minus 1.1 plus or minus 0.8 compared to infants with feeding device support minus 1.7 plus or minus 0.7, p-value equal to 0.01. Lower weight-for-age z-score at birth, presence of moderate or greater atrioventricular valve regurgitation, post-operative ventilation time, and placement of an additional central venous line were associated with 60% of the variance in weight-for-age z-score change.
Neonates undergoing staged surgical repair for univentricular physiology are at significant risk for growth failure between surgery and hospital discharge. Haemodynamically significant atrioventricular valve regurgitation and a complex post-operative course were risk factors for poor post-operative weight gain. Feeding device support appears to be insufficient to ensure adequate weight gain during post-operative hospitalisation.