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In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
We examined whether children rely on linguistic information (i.e. mass vs. count nouns) or object category information (i.e. objects vs. substances) when they name things. A grinder test was used, in which substances (e.g. water) maintain identity through transformation but objects (e.g. a cup) do not. Thirty children aged three through six were asked if the same name could be used for the same item after transformation. The items included pairs of amorphous substances and discrete objects (e.g. water – a cup), perceptually similar discrete objects (e.g. chalk – a crayon), and food items (e.g. corn – a bean). Children accepted the same name for food, ignoring linguistic information, and for objects, relying on linguistic information. In Experiment 2, 32 children aged five through eight were asked if the same name could be used for unfamiliar hardware and food items after transformation when they were labelled by nonsense mass and count nouns. Children tended to use the same name for food, relying on perceptual information. These results are discussed in terms of the active conceptualization about names of objects in relation to object characteristics.
To determine the mortality, hospital stay, and total hospital charges and cost of hospitalization attributable to candidemia by comparing patients with candidemia with control-patients who have otherwise similar illnesses. Prior studies lack broad patient and hospital representation or cost-related information that accurately reflects current medical practices.
Our case-control study included case-patients with candidemia and their cost-related data, ascertained from laboratory-based candidemia surveillance conducted among all residents of Connecticut and Baltimore and Baltimore County, Maryland, during 1998 to 2000. Control-patients were matched on age, hospital type, admission year, discharge diagnoses, and duration of hospitalization prior to candidemia onset.
We identified 214 and 529 sets of matched case-patients and control-patients from the two locations, respectively. Mortality attributable to candidemia ranged between 19% and 24%. On multivariable analysis, candidemia was associated with mortality (OR, 5.3 for Connecticut and 8.5 for Baltimore and Baltimore County; P < .05), whereas receiving adequate treatment was protective (OR, 0.5 and 0.4 for the two locations, respectively; P < .05). Candidemia itself did not increase the total hospital charges and cost of hospitalization; when treatment status was accounted for, having received adequate treatment for candidemia significantly increased the total hospital charges and cost of hospitalization ($6,000 to $29,000 and $3,000 to $22,000, respectively) and the length of stay (3 to 13 days).
Our findings underscore the burden of candidemia, particularly regarding the risk of death, length of hospitalization, and cost associated with treatment (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:540-547).
The ability to communicate through language is a benchmark of human competence. Speakers use language to communicate their knowledge and beliefs and to share their community's rules of social order and cultural norms. Modal expressions, because they encode the stances speakers take on propositions, are essential to these two language functions. Consider, for example, a proposition like John come. With the addition of a modal, such as can, may, must, or will, speakers can make a variety of statements about that proposition, from expressing their degree of certainty about the likelihood of the event it encodes to giving permission for the event to occur. If children are to become competent members of their language community, it is crucial that they master their language's modal system.
Because modal expressions encode notions of necessity, possibility, obligation, and permission, they are an important and revealing aspect of language to study with regard to language–thought issues. The use of modals in the epistemic sense (having to do with beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge states) seems to entail the ability to assess one's own knowledge state, to evaluate evidence, and to communicate those assessments to another whose state may be different from one's own. Such abilities, central though they are to a host of cognitive activities, have not regularly been accorded to children younger than 4. Yet children younger than 4 certainly produce modals in their spontaneous speech. Possibly children use these words solely for purposes of social regulation and description, that is, with deontic and dynamic meanings rather than epistemic ones (Palmer, 1979).
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