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To identify the source of a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae
University Hospital in Chicago, Ilinois.
Hospital patients with M. gordonae-positive clinical cultures.
An increase in isolation of M. gordonae from clinical cultures was noted immediately following the opening of a newly constructed hospital in January 2012. We reviewed medical records of patients with M. gordonae-positive cultures collected between January and December 2012 and cultured potable water specimens in new and old hospitals quantitatively for mycobacteria.
Of 30 patients with M. gordonae-positive clinical cultures, 25 (83.3%) were housed in the new hospital; of 35 positive specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, gastric aspirate), 32 (91.4%) had potential for water contamination. M. gordonae was more common in water collected from the new vs. the old hospital [147 of 157 (93.6%) vs. 91 of 113 (80.5%), P=.001]. Median concentration of M. gordonae was higher in the samples from the new vs. the old hospital (208 vs. 48 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL; P<.001). Prevalence and concentration of M. gordonae were lower in water samples from ice and water dispensers [13 of 28 (46.4%) and 0 CFU/mL] compared with water samples from patient rooms and common areas [225 of 242 (93%) and 146 CFU/mL, P<.001].
M. gordonae was common in potable water. The pseudo-outbreak of M. gordonae was likely due to increased concentrations of M. gordonae in the potable water supply of the new hospital. A silver ion-impregnated 0.5-μm filter may have been responsible for lower concentrations of M. gordonae identified in ice/water dispenser samples. Hospitals should anticipate that construction activities may amplify the presence of waterborne nontuberculous mycobacterial contaminants.
To evaluate infection control and hand hygiene understanding at 3 public hospitals, we surveyed 4,345 healthcare workers (HCWs) 3 times during a 5-year infection control intervention. The preference for the use of alcohol hand rub for hand hygiene increased dramatically; in nurses, it increased from 14% to 34%; in physicians, 4.3% to 51%; and in allied HCWs, 12% to 44%. Study year, infection control interactive education-session attendance, infection control knowledge, and being a physician or allied HCW independently predicted a preference for alcohol hand rub.
To determine whether a multimodal intervention could improve adherence to hand hygiene and glove use recommendations and decrease the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in different types of healthcare facilities.
Prospective, observational study performed from October 1, 1999, through December 31, 2002. We monitored adherence to hand hygiene and glove use recommendations and the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among isolates from clinical cultures. We evaluated trends in and predictors for adherence and preferential use of alcohol-based hand rubs, using multivariable analyses.
Three intervention hospitals (a 660-bed acute and long-term care hospital, a 120-bed community hospital, and a 600-bed public teaching hospital) and a control hospital (a 700-bed university teaching hospital).
At the intervention hospitals, we introduced or increased the availability of alcohol-based hand rub, initiated an interactive education program, and developed a poster campaign; at the control hospital, we only increased the availability of alcohol-based hand rub.
We observed 6,948 hand hygiene opportunities. The frequency of hand hygiene performance or glove use significantly increased during the study period at the intervention hospitals but not at the control hospital; the maximum quarterly frequency of hand hygiene performance or glove use at intervention hospitals (74%, 80%, and 77%) was higher than that at the control hospital (59%). By multivariable analysis, preferential use of alcohol-based hand rubs rather than soap and water for hand hygiene was more likely among workers at intervention hospitals compared with nonintervention hospitals (adjusted odds ratio, 4.6 [95% confidence interval, 3.3-6.4]) and more likely among physicians (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8]) than among nurses at intervention hospitals. A significantly reduced incidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among isolates from clinical culture was found at a single intervention hospital, which had the greatest increase in the frequency of hand hygiene performance.
During a 3-year period, a multimodal intervention program increased adherence to hand hygiene recommendations, especially to the use of alcohol-based hand rubs. In one hospital, a concomitant reduction was found in the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among isolates from clinical cultures.
In 2002, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH; Chicago, Illinois) convened the Chicago-Area Neonatal MRSA Working Group (CANMWG) to discuss and compare approaches aimed at control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To better understand these issues on a regional level, the CDPH and the Evanston Department of Health and Human Services (EDHHS; Evanston, Illinois) began an investigation.
Survey to collect demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic data on individual cases and clusters of MRSA infection; an additional survey collected data on infection control practices.
Level III NICUs at Chicago-area hospitals.
Neonates and healthcare workers associated with the level III NICUs.
From June 2001 through September 2002, the participating hospitals reported all clusters of MRSA infection in their respective level III NICUs to the CDPH and the EDHHS.
Thirteen clusters of MRSA infection were detected in level III NICUs, and 149 MRSA-positive infants were reported. Infection control surveys showed that hospitals took different approaches for controlling MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
The CANMWG developed recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA colonization and infection in the NICU and agreed that recommendations should expand to include future data generated by further studies. Continuing partnerships between hospital infection control personnel and public health professionals will be crucial in honing appropriate guidelines for effective approaches to the management and control of MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
We developed criteria for justifiable CVC use and evaluated CVC use in a public hospital. Unjustified CVC-days were more common for non-ICU patients compared with ICU patients. Also, insertion-site dressings were less likely to be intact on non-ICU patients. Interventions to reduce CVC-associated bloodstream infections should include non-ICU patients.
We observed adherence with hand hygiene in 14 units at 4 hospitals with varying sink-to-bed ratios (range, 1:1 to 1:6). Adherence was less than 50% in all units and there was no significant trend toward improved hand hygiene with increased sink-to-bed ratios.
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