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This study examined the hypothesis that xanthosine (XS) treatment would promote mammary-specific gene expression and stem cell transcripts and have a positive influence on milk yield of dairy goats. Seven primiparous Beetal goats were assigned to the study. Five days after kidding, one gland (either left or right) was infused with XS (TRT) twice daily for 3 d and the other gland with no XS infusion served as a control (CON). Mammary biopsies were collected at 10 d and RNA was isolated. Gene expression analysis of milk synthesis genes, mammary stem/progenitor cell markers, cell proliferation and differentiation markers were performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that the transcripts of milk synthesis genes (BLG4, CSN2, LALBA, FABP3, CD36) and mammary stem/progenitor cell markers (ALDH1 and NR5A2) were increased in as a result of XS treatment. Average milk yield in TRT glands was increased marginally (approximately ~2% P = 0·05, paired t-test) per gland relative to CON gland until 7 wk. After 7 wk, milk yield of TRT and CON glands did not differ. Analysis of milk composition revealed that protein, lactose, fat and solids-not-fat percentages remained the same in TRT and CON glands. These results suggest that XS increases expression of milk synthesis genes, mammary stem/progenitor cells and has a small effect on milk yield.
To assess parental awareness of per-meal energy (calorie) recommendations for children’s restaurant meals and to explore whether calorie awareness was associated with parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating restaurant food.
Cross-sectional online survey administered in July 2014. Parents estimated calories (i.e. kilocalories; 1 kcal=4·184 kJ) recommended for a child’s lunch/dinner restaurant meal (range: 0–2000 kcal). Responses were categorized as ‘underestimate’ (<400 kcal), ‘accurate’ (400–600 kcal) and ‘overestimate’ (>600 kcal). Confidence in response was measured on a 4-point scale from ‘very unsure’ to ‘very sure’. Logistic regressions estimated the odds of an ‘accurate’ response and confident response (‘somewhat’ or ‘very sure’) by parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating from restaurants. Sampling weights based on demographics were incorporated in all analyses.
Parents (n 1207) of 5–12-year-old children.
On average, parents estimated 631 (se 19·4) kcal as the appropriate amount for a 5–12-year-old child’s meal. Thirty-five per cent answered in the accurate range, while 33·3 and 31·8 % underestimated and overestimated, respectively. Frequent dining at restaurants, lower income and urban geography were associated with lower odds of answering accurately. Parents’ confidence in their estimates was low across the sample (26·0 % confident) and only 10·1 % were both accurate and confident.
Parent education about calorie recommendations for children could improve understanding and use of menu labelling information in restaurants. Targeted strategies are recommended to ensure that such efforts address, rather than exacerbate, health disparities.
Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend.
An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors.
Within the USA.
US children (n 1224) aged 8–18 years.
Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1 % of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9 %) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1 %). Most children (91·1 %) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1 %); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2 %); not be able to play sports well (84·5 %); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8 %). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children.
Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.
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