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In this summary of US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consultations with state and local health departments concerning their bronchoscope-associated investigations from 2014 through 2022, bronchoscope reprocessing gaps and exposure to nonsterile water sources appeared to be the major routes of transmission of infectious pathogens, which were primarily water-associated bacteria.
Background: Nearly one-third of patients on hemodialysis receive intravenous (IV) antibiotics annually, but national data characterizing antibiotic use in this population are limited. Using NHSN surveillance data for outpatient dialysis facilities, we estimated temporal changes in the rate of IV antibiotic starts (IVAS) among hemodialysis patients as well as the proportion of IVAS that were not supported by a reported clinical indication. Methods: IVAS events were obtained from the NHSN Dialysis Event module between 2016 and 2020, excluding patients who were out of network, receiving peritoneal or home dialysis, or with unspecified vascular access. IVAS unsupported by documentation were defined as new IVAS without a collected or positive blood culture, pus, redness or swelling event, or an associated clinical symptom. Pooled mean rates of total and unsupported IVAS were estimated per 100 patient months yearly and stratified by vascular access type. Differences in IVAS rates by year were estimated with negative binomial regression. Results: Between 2016 and 2020, 7,278 facilities reported 648,410 IVAS events; 161,317 (25%) were unsupported by documentation (Table 1). In 2016, 3,340 (54%) facilities with ≥1 IVAS event reported an IVAS unsupported by documentation, which increased to 4,994 (73%) in 2020. Total IVAS rates decreased by an average of 8.2% annually (95% CI, 7.1%–9.3%; P < .001). The average annual percentage decrease did not differ significantly by vascular access site. The total IVAS rate was lowest in 2020 (2.17 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 2.18–2.17). IVAS rates in 2020 were greatest for patients with catheter access (4.79 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 4.75–4.83), followed by graft (1.71 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 1.68–1.73), and lowest for patients with fistulas (1.30 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 1.29–1.31). The overall pooled mean rate of unsupported IVAS was 0.64 per 100 patient months (95% CI, 0.63–0.64), which did not significantly change by year (Fig. 1). Conclusions: Total IVAS rates among outpatient hemodialysis patients have decreased since 2016, and rates among catheter patients remain highest compared to patients with fistulas or grafts. However, unsupported IVAS rates did not change, and the proportion of facilities reporting an unsupported IVAS increased annually. Targeted efforts to engage facilities with unsupported IVAS may help improve accurate reporting and prescribing practices.
Background: More than 450,000 patients receive outpatient hemodialysis in the United States. Patients on hemodialysis are at high risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs), which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. National prevention efforts targeting hemodialysis facilities have resulted in widespread changes in practice, including modifications to central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance procedures. We analyzed dialysis event surveillance data submitted to the CDC NHSN to describe changes in BSI rates among hemodialysis outpatients from 2014 to 2018. Methods: Outpatient hemodialysis facilities report BSIs (ie, positive blood cultures collected in the outpatient setting or within 1 calendar day after hospital admission) and the number of hemodialysis outpatients treated during the first 2 working days of each month to the NHSN. For each BSI, the suspected source (ie, vascular access, another site, contamination, or uncertain) and vascular access type are indicated: CVC, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG). Pooled mean rates (per 100 patient months) were calculated for BSIs, access-related BSIs (ARBSIs), and BSIs and ARBSIs were stratified by vascular access type. Annual BSI rate trends were evaluated using a negative binomial regression model, which treated patient months as an offset variable and included access type, year, and an access-year interaction variable. Results: More than 6,000 outpatient hemodialysis facilities reported 134,961 BSIs from 2014 to 2018. Of these BSIs, 102,505 (76%) were categorized as access related. CVCs were present in 63% of BSIs and 70% of ARBSIs. Pooled mean BSI rates decreased 27% from 0.64 to 0.47 per 100 patient months; rates of ARBSIs decreased 27% from 0.49 to 0.36 per 100 patient months. Significant decreases in event rates occurred across vascular access strata (Fig. 1). The reduction in BSI and ARBSI burden was most pronounced among patients with CVCs. BSI rates in patients with CVCs decreased 32% from 2.16 per 100 patient months to 1.46 (annual average decrease, 9.5%), and ARBSI rates in patients with CVCs decreased 32% from 1.83 per 100 patient months to 1.24 (annual average decrease, 9.4%). Conclusions: Substantial reductions in BSI and ARBSI rates among hemodialysis outpatients occurred during this 5-year period, and these reductions appear to be most prominent among CVC and AVF patients. Improvements in infection prevention and control practices, including CVC care, have likely contributed to these reductions. Additional efforts to increase the uptake of known prevention practices and to identify new strategies for prevention might contribute to continued decreases in infections among this highly vulnerable population.
Background: Exposure to medical devices can be a risk factor for the development of healthcare-associated infections; bronchoscopes are a leading cause of device-associated outbreaks. We describe bronchoscope-related outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP), and we summarize investigation steps and control measures. Methods: We identified bronchoscope-related consultations with state and local health departments between July 1, 2014, and September 30, 2019, in the DHQP database. We abstracted data on patient symptoms, clinical culture results, investigation findings, and subsequent infection prevention and control interventions. Results: We identified 15 consultations involving 150 patients (range, 3–31 patients per consultation). Each consultation involved at least 1 cluster of the same organism. Organisms associated with bronchoscope-associated clusters were nontuberculous mycobacteria (n = 7), Candida spp (n = 3), Exophiala spp (n = 2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 2), Enterobacter spp (n = 2), and Raoultella planticola, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter spp, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Aspergillus spp (1 each; 2 consultations involved multiple pathogens). Procedures from which these patient specimens were collected included bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial wash, bronchial brushing, sputum swab, and lymph node biopsy. For the 7 outbreaks in which clinical data were available, 5 did not have patients with clinical infections related to the pathogen recovered. Two consultations involved pseudo-outbreaks: one involved contamination of specimen collection tubes and the other involved contamination of cultures within the laboratory. Potential underlying pathogen sources included contaminated bronchoscopes (inadequate reprocessing or device damage) (n = 10, 67%), use of nonsterile ice, water, or saline during the procedure (n = 4, 27%), contaminated specimen collection tubes (n = 1, 7%), contaminated bronchoscope suite (n = 1, 7%), and clinical laboratory contamination (n = 1, 7%). The most common interventions included improvement of reprocessing procedures (n = 5), removal of possibly damaged bronchoscopes (n = 4), and eliminating nonsterile ice and water exposures in bronchoscopy (n = 3). Conclusions: Water-related organisms were the most commonly identified pathogens in bronchoscope-related consultations, highlighting the important role that exposure to contaminated water during bronchoscopy and bronchoscope reprocessing might play in bronchoscopy-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks. During bronchoscope-related outbreaks identifying a common pathogen could indicate problems in bronchoscope handling or reprocessing, device damage, or exposure to nonsterile water.
Background: The Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) strategy is a quality improvement framework created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to facilitate the reduction of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). TAP facility assessments are a component of the TAP strategy and are completed by staff across the facility to help identify perceptions of and target infection prevention gaps. We have described the gaps most commonly reported by facilities completing TAP facility assessments for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Methods: TAP CAUTI and CLABSI assessments were completed by acute-care facilities across the nation, with CDC technical assistance, from December 2014 to August 2019. Similar questions across 2 versions of CAUTI assessments and 3 versions of CLABSI assessments were combined. Analysis was limited to facilities with ≥10 assessments. Infection prevention gaps were defined as ≥33% respondents answering Unknown, ≥33% respondents answering “no,” or ≥50% of respondents answering “no” and “unknown” or “never” and “rarely” “sometimes” “unknown.” The analysis was completed at the facility level, and the gaps most commonly reported across facilities were identified. Results: In total, 1,942 CAUTI assessments from 42 facilities in 12 states and 1,623 CLABSI assessments from 29 facilities in 11 states were included for analysis. The mean numbers of assessments per facility were 46.2 for CAUTIs and 56.0 for CLABSIs. Across both CAUTIs and CLABSIs, commonly reported perceptions about infection prevention gaps included lack of physician and nurse champions for prevention activities, failure to conduct competency assessments, and inconsistency in select device insertion practices (Fig. 1). For CAUTIs, lack of practices to facilitate timely removal of urinary catheters were also commonly reported, with one-third of facilities reporting inconsistency in use of alerts for catheter removal, 78.6% reporting lack of physician response to these alerts, and 90.5% reporting deficiencies in removing unnecessary catheters in the postanesthesia care unit. For CLABSIs, 79.3% of facilities reported failure to replace central lines within 48 hours after emergent insertion, and 62.1% reported that feedback was not provided to staff on central-line device utilization ratios. Conclusion: For both assessments, absence of CAUTI and CLABSI prevention champions, failure to conduct competency assessments, and inconsistency in performing device insertion practices were commonly reported across facilities. These common gaps have and will continue to inform the development of tools and resources to improve infection prevention practices as well as help to better target the implementation of interventions.
Background: Peritoneal dialysis is a type of dialysis performed by patients in their homes; patients receive training from dialysis clinic staff. Peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis, most commonly caused by gram-positive organisms. During March‒April 2019, a dialysis provider organization transitioned ~400 patients to a different manufacturer of peritoneal dialysis equipment and supplies (from product A to B). Shortly thereafter, patients experienced an increase in peritonitis episodes, caused predominantly by gram-negative organisms. In May 2019, we initiated an investigation to determine the source. Methods: We conducted case finding, reviewed medical records, observed peritoneal dialysis procedures and trainings, and performed patient home visits and interviews. A 1:1 matched case–control study was performed in 1 state. A case had ≥2 of the following: (1) positive peritoneal fluid culture, (2) high peritoneal fluid white cell count with ≥50% polymorphonuclear cells, or (3) cloudy peritoneal fluid and/or abdominal pain. Controls were matched to cases by week of clinic visit. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate univariate matched odds ratios (mOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We conducted microbiological testing of peritoneal dialysis fluid bags to rule out product contamination. Results: During March‒September 2019, we identified 157 cases of peritonitis across 15 clinics in 2 states (attack rate≍39%). Staphylococcus spp (14%), Serratia spp (12%) and Klebsiella spp (6.3%) were the most common pathogens. Steps to perform peritoneal dialysis using product B differed from product A in several key areas; however, no common errors in practice were identified to explain the outbreak. Patient training on transitioning products was not standardized. Outcomes of the 73 cases in the case–control study included hospitalization (77%), peritoneal dialysis failure (40%), and death (7%). The median duration of training prior to product transition was 1 day for cases and controls (P = .86). Transitioning to product B (mOR, 18.00; 95% CI, 2.40‒134.83), using product B (mOR, 18.26; 95% CI, 3.86‒∞), drain-line reuse (mOR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.34‒16.24) and performing daytime exchanges (mOR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.71‒8.45) were associated with peritonitis. After several interventions, including transition of patients back to product A (Fig. 1), overall cases declined. Sterility testing of samples from 23 unopened product B peritoneal dialysis solution bags showed no contamination. Conclusions: Multiple factors may have contributed to this large outbreak, including a rapid transition in peritoneal dialysis products and potentially inadequate patient training. Efforts are needed to identify and incorporate best training practices, and product advances are desired to improve the safety of patient transitions between different types of peritoneal dialysis equipment.
To describe pathogen distribution and rates for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) from different acute-care locations during 2011–2017 to inform prevention efforts.
CLABSI data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) were analyzed. Percentages and pooled mean incidence density rates were calculated for a variety of pathogens and stratified by acute-care location groups (adult intensive care units [ICUs], pediatric ICUs [PICUs], adult wards, pediatric wards, and oncology wards).
From 2011 to 2017, 136,264 CLABSIs were reported to the NHSN by adult and pediatric acute-care locations; adult ICUs and wards reported the most CLABSIs: 59,461 (44%) and 40,763 (30%), respectively. In 2017, the most common pathogens were Candida spp/yeast in adult ICUs (27%) and Enterobacteriaceae in adult wards, pediatric wards, oncology wards, and PICUs (23%–31%). Most pathogen-specific CLABSI rates decreased over time, excepting Candida spp/yeast in adult ICUs and Enterobacteriaceae in oncology wards, which increased, and Staphylococcus aureus rates in pediatric locations, which did not change.
The pathogens associated with CLABSIs differ across acute-care location groups. Learning how pathogen-targeted prevention efforts could augment current prevention strategies, such as strategies aimed at preventing Candida spp/yeast and Enterobacteriaceae CLABSIs, might further reduce national rates.
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