To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We determined the relationship between aortic arch anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis and chromosomal or genetic abnormality, by performing analysis of 257 consecutive patients undergoing surgical repair from January, 2003 to March, 2011. Chromosomal or genetic abnormality was identified in 49 of the 257 (19%) patients. These included trisomy 21 (n = 14); chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (n = 16); other chromosomal abnormalities (n = 9); CHARGE (n = 2); Pierre Robin (n = 2); and Kabuki, Alagille, Holt–Oram, Kaufman McKusick, Goldenhar, and PHACE (n = 1 each). Aortic anatomy was classified as left arch with normal branching, right arch with mirror image branching, left arch with aberrant right subclavian artery, or right arch with aberrant left subclavian artery. Associated syndromes occurred in 33 of 203 (16%) patients with left arch and normal branching (odds ratio 1); three of 36 (8%) patients with right arch and mirror image branching (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.1–1.6); seven of eight (88%) patients with left arch and aberrant right subclavian artery (odds ratio 36, 95% confidence interval 4–302); and six of 10 (60%) patients with right arch and aberrant left subclavian artery (odds ratio 8, 95% confidence interval 2–26). Syndromes were present in 13 of 18 (72%) patients with either right or left aberrant subclavian artery (odds ratio 15, 95% confidence interval 4–45). Syndromes in patients with an aberrant subclavian artery included trisomy 21 (n = 4); chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (n = 5); and Holt–Oram, PHACE, CHARGE, and chromosome 18p deletion (n = 1 each). Aberrant right or left subclavian artery in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis is associated with an increased incidence of chromosomal or genetic abnormality, whereas right aortic arch with mirror image branching is not. The assessment of aortic arch anatomy at prenatal diagnosis can assist counselling.
Temporary percutaneous epicardial pacing wires are routinely placed in children following cardiac surgery. There is uncertainty in clinical practice about the optimum timing for their removal, and practice varies widely both within and between different institutions.
The aim of our study was to describe the use of temporary pacing in children undergoing cardiac surgery.
We performed a prospective audit of 140 children following cardiac surgery in two institutions. Information on diagnosis, surgical procedure, occurrence of arrhythmias, use of pacing wires, timing of removal of the wire, and complications related to removal was recorded on a daily basis from clinical records.
We studied 140 patients undergoing a total of 141 operations. Of these, 39 (28%) required pacing postoperatively. In 38, pacing was required within the first 24 hours. One patient, who was in nodal rhythm for the first 24 hours, required pacing on the second postoperative day, while 29 patients required pacing beyond the first 24 hours. No patient in sinus rhythm on the first postoperative day required new pacing after this time. The median time to removal of the pacing wires was 4.5 days, with an inter-quartile range from 2 to 9 days. Complications included malfunction of atrial wires in 2 patients.
Our study shows that no patient who was in sinus rhythm for the first 24 hours post-operatively required pacing before their discharge from hospital. This suggests that, in those patients in a stable state of sinus rhythm, and who have not required pacing within the first 24 hours, it may be safe to remove pacing wires after 24 hours. This could be timed to coincide with the removal of chest drains, thus avoiding the need for multiple distressing procedures.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.