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To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer (BC) risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013–2014).
A population-based case–control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western and Picky; the proportion in the controls and cases was 0·30/0·32/0·16/0·23 and 0·29/0·26/0·11/0·33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterised by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption of specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soya foods and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1·42, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR = 1·44, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·05) but not in premenopausal women. The Western class characterised by high-protein, high-fat and high-sugar foods, and the Chinese traditional class characterised by typical consumption of soya foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA captures the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population and could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of BC.
The present study compared the protective effect of sodium selenite (SS) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on heat stress (HS)-invoked porcine IPEC-J2 cellular damage and integrate potential roles of corresponding selenoprotein. Cells were cultured at 37°C until 80 % confluence and then subjected to four different conditions for 24 h: at 37°C (control), 41·5°C (HS), 41·5°C supplied with 0·42 µmol Se/L SS (SS), or SeMet (SeMet). HS significantly decreased cell viability, up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of tight junction-related proteins (claudin-1 (CLDN-1) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)). HS-induced cell injury was associated with the up-regulation (P < 0·05) of six inflammation-related genes and fourteen selenoprotein encoding genes and down-regulation (P < 0·05) of two inflammation-related genes and five selenoprotein encoding genes. Compared with the HS group, SS and SeMet supplementation resulted in an increase (P < 0·05) in cell viability, decreased (P < 0·05) mRNA expression of HSP70 and six inflammation-related genes and rescue (P < 0·05) of mRNA and protein levels of CLDN-1 and ZO-1. SS and SeMet supplementation changes the expressions of nineteen selenoprotein encoding genes in cells affected by HS. Both Se supplementation significantly recovered the protein level of glutathione peroxidase-1 and increased selenoprotein P in the IPEC-J2 cells under HS, respectively. In summary, Se supplementation alleviated the negative impact of HS on IPEC-J2 cells, and their cellular protective effect was associated with regulation expression of selenoproteins, and SeMet exhibited a better protective effect.
In this work, we reported the growth of cadmium-free Ag-doped Zn–In–S nanocrystals (NCs) with effective photoluminescence (PL) via a hot-injection strategy. The effects of the nucleation temperatures, reaction times, and Ag-doping concentrations on the PL properties of Ag-doped Zn–In–S NCs were investigated systematically. The as-synthesized NCs exhibit color-tunable PL emissions covering a broad visible range of 472–585 nm. After being passivated by a protective ZnS shell, the PL quantum yield (QY) of the resultant NCs was greatly improved up to 33%. With the increase of the Ag-doping level, the PL is significantly intensified due to the improved concentration of Ag ions which provides more holes to recombine with electrons from the bottom of the conduction band. This also makes the emission via the dopant energy level become a powerful, competitive advantage for the NCs with higher Ag-doping levels, resulting in a longer lifetime and higher PL QY. These results suggest that tailoring the Ag-doping level can be a powerful strategy to control the optical properties of Ag-doped Zn–In–S NCs.
An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT–PCR. Samples that were RNA positive were genotyped. Of 185 senior residents and 24 staff in the nursing home, there were 37 laboratory-confirmed cases during the outbreak. Of these cases, 12 patients (three deaths) were symptomatic with jaundice, a common clinical symptom for hepatitis E infection. HEV strains were isolated from three cases and they formed a single cluster within genotype 4d. A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for the outbreak and the results revealed that cases more often washed their dishes and rinsed their mouths using tap water than the controls (P < 0·05). Based on hygiene investigation and meteorological information, it is likely that HEV-infected sewage and faeces contaminated the water network on rainy days. Collectively, these results suggest that the outbreak of HEV genotype 4 infection was most likely caused by contaminated tap water rather than food.
This study reviews the results of the surgical management of 154 cases of ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. Of the patients0 73% were male, with an average age of 28 years. An associated ventricular septal defect was found in 40% and 23% had aortic valvar regurgitation. The aneurysms originated from the right coronary sinus in 79% and from the non-coronary sinus in the remainders. The aneurysms ruptured into the right ventricle in 73%, into the right atrium in 27% and into the left ventricle in less than 1%. Operative mortality was 4.5%. Long-term follow-up was achieved in 80% of patients, with a mean duration of 5.7 years and a range from two months to 29 years. Preoperative aortic regurgitation and preoperative functional class (NYHA III or IV) were both predictive of a worse long-term outcome. The optimal surgical approach was closure of the distal end of the fistula by direct suture together with reinforcement of the aortic sinus with a Dacron patch.
In this paper, we report the first successful fabrication of dense and optically transparent cadmium tungstate (CWO) films by sol-gel processing and the study of their optical and x-ray scintillation properties. A new sol-gel processing method was developed using tungstic acid and cadmium nitrate as precursors and hydrogen peroxide as solvent; homogeneous and stable CWO sols were aged at room temperature and used for the preparation of CWO films. A rapid sintering process was investigated and found to be necessary to make dense and optically transparent nanocrystalline CWO films. CWO films were uniform, fully dense, and crack-free, with CWO as the only detectable crystalline phase, as determined by x-ray diffraction. The thickness, density, grain size, and crystallinity of CWO films are all found to be strongly dependent on the sintering conditions and in turn impact the optical and x-ray scintillation properties. Sol-gel-derived dense CWO films demonstrated intense photoluminescence and x-ray excited optical luminescence intensity. The relationships between sol-gel processing, nanostructures, and optical and x-ray scintillation properties are discussed in detail.
Nanotube arrays of amorphous vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) were synthesized through the template-based electrodeposition and its electrochemical properties were investigated for Li-ion intercalation applications. The nanotubes have a length of 10 μm, outer-diameter of 200 nm and inner-diameter of 100 nm. Electrochemical analyses demonstrate that the V2O5 nanotube array delivers a high initial capacity of 300 mAh/g, about twice that of the electrochemically-prepared V2O5 film. Although the V2O5 nanotube array shows a more drastic degradation than the film under electrochemical redox cycles, the nanotube array reaches a stabilized capacity of 160 mAh/g which remains about 1.3 times the stabilized capacity of the film.
This paper reports direct growth of  ZnO nanorod arrays on ITO substrate from aqueous solution with electric field assisted nucleation, followed with thermal annealing. Xray diffraction analyses revealed that nanorods have wurtzite crystal structure. The diameter of ZnO nanorods was 60 ∼ 300 nm and the length was up to 2.5 μm depending on the growth condition. Photoluminescence spectra showed a broad emission band spreading from 500 to 870 nm, which suggests that ZnO nanorods have a high density of oxygen interstitials. Low and nonlinear electrical conductivity of ZnO nanorod array was observed, which was ascribed to non-ohmic contact between top electrode and ZnO nanorods and the low concentration of oxygen vacancies.
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