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The landscape of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is changing rapidly. The primary objective of this study was to assess the benefit of linking population-based infection prevention and control surveillance data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to hospital discharge abstract data (DAD). We assessed the value of this novel data linkage for the characterization of hospital-acquired (HA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) cases.
Incident inpatient MRSA surveillance data for all adults (≥18 years) from 4 acute-care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2017, were linked to DAD. Personal health number (PHN) and gender were used to identify specific individuals, and specimen collection time-points were used to identify specific hospitalization records. A third common variable on admission date between these databases was used to validate the linkage process. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA cases identified through the linkage process.
A total of 2,430 surveillance records (94.6%) were successfully linked to the correct hospitalization period. By linking surveillance and administrative data, we were able to identify key differences between patients with HA- and CA-MRSA. These differences are consistent with previously reported findings in the literature. Data linkage to DAD may be a novel tool to enhance and augment the details of base surveillance data.
Conclusion and recommendations:
This is the first Canadian study linking a frontline healthcare-associated infection AMR surveillance database to an administrative population database. This work represents an important methodological step toward complementing traditional AMR surveillance data practices. Data linkage to other data types, such as primary care, emergency, social, and biological data, may be the basis of achieving more precise data focused around AMR.
A case-control study was conducted to determine risk factors for hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection among patients admitted to 2 surgical units. Ertapenem prophylaxis was significantly associated with C. difficile infection risk (odds ratio, 3.13 [95% CI, 1.13–8.68], P=.028) and may offer an antimicrobial stewardship target among surgical patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1351–1354
The electronic structure for a strained silicon quantum well grown on a tilted SiGe substrate is calculated using an empirical tight-binding method. For a zero substrate tilt angle the two lowest minima of the conduction band define a non-zero valley splitting at the center of the Brillouin zone. A finite tilt angle for the substrate results in displacing the two lowest conduction band minima to finite k0 and -k0 in the Brillouin zone with equal energy. The vanishing of the valley splitting for quantum wells grown on tilted substrates is found to be a direct consequence of the periodicity of the steps at the interfaces between the quantum well and the buffer materials.
Self-assembled InAsSb/InGaAs quantum dots are candidates for optical detectors and emitters in the 2–5 micron band with a wide range of applications for atmospheric chemistry studies. It is known that while the energy band gap of unstrained bulk InAs1−xSbx is smallest for x=0.62, the biaxial strain for bulk InAs1−xSbx grown on In0.53Ga0.47As shifts the energy gap to higher energies and the smallest band gap is reached for x=0.51. The aim of the present study is to examine how the electronic confinement in the quantum dots modifies these simple considerations. We have calculated the electronic structure of lens shaped InAs1−xSbx quantum dots with diameter 37 nm and height 4 nm embedded in a In0.53Ga0.47As matrix of thickness 7 nm and lattice matched to an InP buffer. The relaxed atomic positions were determined by minimizing the elastic energy obtained from a valence force field description of the inter-atomic interaction. The electronic structure was calculated with an empirical tight binding approach. For Sb concentrations larger than x=0.5, it is found that the InSb/ In0.53Ga0.47As heterostructure becomes type II leading to no electron confined in the dot. It is also found that the energy gap decreases with increasing Sb content in contradiction with previous experimental results. A possible explanation is a significant variation is quantum dot size with Sb content.
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