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Origins of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by recent SN surveys are still not known well. One idea to explain the huge luminosity is the collision of dense CSM and SN ejecta. If SN ejecta is surrounded by dense CSM, the kinetic energy of SN ejecta is efficiently converted to radiation energy, making them very bright. To see how well this idea works quantitatively, we performed numerical simulations of collisions of SN ejecta and dense CSM by using one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA and obtained light curves (LCs) resulting from the collision. First, we show the results of our LC modeling of SLSN 2006gy. We find that physical parameters of dense CSM estimated by using the idea of shock breakout in dense CSM (e.g., Chevalier & Irwin 2011, Moriya & Tominaga 2012) can explain the LC properties of SN 2006gy well. The dense CSM's radius is about 1016 cm and its mass about 15 M⊙. It should be ejected within a few decades before the explosion of the progenitor. We also discuss how LCs change with different CSM and SN ejecta properties and origins of the diversity of H-rich SLSNe. This can potentially be a probe to see diversities in mass-loss properties of the progenitors. Finally, we also discuss a possible signature of SN ejecta-CSM interaction which can be found in H-poor SLSN.
Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are fainter than Type Ia SNe and thus have so far been observed only at z < 1. We introduce shock breakout and propose a distant SN II-P survey at z > 1 with shock breakout. The first observation of shock breakout from the rising phase is reported in 2008. We first construct a theoretical model reproducing the UV-optical light curves (LCs) of the first example and demonstrate that the peak apparent g-band magnitude of the shock breakout would be mg ~ 26.4 mag if an identical SN occurs at a redshift z = 1, which can be reached by 8m-class telescopes. Furthermore, we present LCs of shock breakout of SN explosions with various main-sequence masses, metallicities, and explosion energies and derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter and limiting magnitude by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. The g-band observable SN rate with limiting magnitude 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg−2 day−1 and half of them are located at z > 1.2.
Red supergiants (RSGs) are progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe). It is suggested that RSGs can experience a mass loss with a very high mass-loss rate (even as high as 0.01 M⊙ yr−1) due to, e.g., dynamical instabilities of their envelopes (e.g., Yoon & Cantiello (2010)). Because of the extensive mass loss, RSGs can have very dense circumstellar medium (CSM) around them. If a SN explosion occurs soon after the extensive mass loss of a RSG, the SN ejecta will collide with the dense CSM. Due to the collision, the kinetic energy of the ejecta is converted to radiation energy and such SNe with collision can be brighter than usual Type IIP SNe. By performing one-dimensional multi-group radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we investigate the effects of the collision on Type IIP SN LCs. We show that if RSGs explode within a dense CSM, the SN will be very bright, especially in ultraviolet, at early epochs. We also compare our models with the ultraviolet-bright Type IIP SN 2009kf and show that the progenitor of SN 2009kf can be a massive RSG which experienced extensive mass loss just before its explosion. We conclude that this is evidence that massive RSGs experience extensive mass loss and the existence of such mass loss can actually be the cause of the contradiction between theoretical and observational mass ranges of Type IIP SN progenitors.
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
We present and analyze spectra of the Type IIn supernova 1994W obtained between 18 and 202 days after explosion. During the first 100 days the line profiles are composed of three major components: (i) narrow P Cygni lines with absorption minima at −700 km s−1; (ii) broad emission lines with blue velocity at zero intensity ~ 4000 km s−1; (iii) broad, smooth, extended wings most apparent in Hα. These components are identified with the expanding circumstellar (CS) envelope , shocked cool gas in the forward postshock region, and multiple Thomson scattering in the CS envelope, respectively. The absence of broad P Cygni lines from the supernova (SN) is the result of the formation of an optically thick, cool, dense shell at the interface of the ejecta and the CS envelope. Models of the SN deceleration and Thomson scattering wings are used to recover the Thomson optical depth of the CS envelope, τT ≥ 2.5 during first month, its density (n ~ 109 cm-3) and radial extent, ~ (4 — 5) × 1015 cm. The plateau-like SN light curve, which we reproduce by a hydrodynamical model, is powered by a combination of internal energy leakage after the explosion of an extended presupernova (~ 1015 cm) and subsequent luminosity from circumstellar interaction. We recover the pre-explosion kinematics of the CS envelope and find it to be close to homologous expansion with outmost velocity ≈ 1100 km s-1 and a kinematic age of ~ 1.5 yr. The high mass (≈ 0.4 M⊙) and kinetic energy (≈ 2 × 1048 erg) of the CS envelope combined with small age strongly suggest that the CS envelope was explosively ejected only a few years before the SN explosion.
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