To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Mood disorders require consistent management of symptoms to prevent recurrences of mood episodes. Circadian rhythm (CR) disruption is a key symptom of mood disorders to be proactively managed to prevent mood episode recurrences. This study aims to predict impending mood episodes recurrences using digital phenotypes related to CR obtained from wearable devices and smartphones.
The study is a multicenter, nationwide, prospective, observational study with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder I, and bipolar II disorder. A total of 495 patients were recruited from eight hospitals in South Korea. Patients were followed up for an average of 279.7 days (a total sample of 75 506 days) with wearable devices and smartphones and with clinical interviews conducted every 3 months. Algorithms predicting impending mood episodes were developed with machine learning. Algorithm-predicted mood episodes were then compared to those identified through face-to-face clinical interviews incorporating ecological momentary assessments of daily mood and energy.
Two hundred seventy mood episodes recurred in 135 subjects during the follow-up period. The prediction accuracies for impending major depressive episodes, manic episodes, and hypomanic episodes for the next 3 days were 90.1, 92.6, and 93.0%, with the area under the curve values of 0.937, 0.957, and 0.963, respectively.
We predicted the onset of mood episode recurrences exclusively using digital phenotypes. Specifically, phenotypes indicating CR misalignment contributed the most to the prediction of episodes recurrences. Our findings suggest that monitoring of CR using digital devices can be useful in preventing and treating mood disorders.
A new species of chionelasmatid sessile vent barnacle, Eochionelasmus coreana sp. nov., is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected from the Solitaire hydrothermal vent field in the Central Indian Ridge of the Indian Ocean. This new species is morphologically very similar to E. ohtai, the type species of the genus Eochionelasmus. However, it differs from E. ohtai in its distribution, the status of the notch on the maxillule, and the positions of rl1 and cl1 on whorls of the imbricating plates. In addition, a molecular phylogenetic tree indicated that the chionelasmatid Eochionelasmus was closely related to the waikalasmatid Waikalasma with high supporting values rather than the other chionelasmatid Chionelasmus. The new species is not only the first record of a sessile vent barnacle from outside of the Pacific Ocean, but is also the first sessile barnacle from the Indian Ocean.
A new species of callianassid ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus sp. nov., is described and illustrated on the basis of five specimens that were collected from sediments in a vent field of the Tonga Arc, south-western Pacific Ocean. This new species is morphologically very similar to P. calderus Türkay & Sakai, 1995, the type species of the genus Paraglypturus Türkay & Sakai, 1995. It differs from P. calderus mainly in the absence (vs. presence in P. calderus) of an anterolateral row of setal pores on the carapace; the endopod of the second maxilliped, with a dactylus bearing stiff and thick serrate setae at the apex (vs. without in P. calderus); a yellow circular structure located on the ventral surface on the uropodal endopod (vs. on the dorsal surface on the uropodal exopod in P. calderus); and the articulation structure of the first pleopod in males (uniarticulate in P. tonganus vs. biarticulate in P. calderus). The new species is the first record of a ghost shrimp from a vent field of the Tonga Arc, and also the second reported species of the genus Paraglypturus.
Despite numerous previous studies, relationships between watershed land use and adjacent streams and rivers at various scales in Korea remain unclear. This study investigated the relationships between land uses and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of 720 sites of streams and rivers across the country. The land uses at two spatial scales, including a 1-km buffer and the base watershed management region (BWMR), were computed in a geographical information system (GIS) with a digital land use/land cover map. Characteristics of land uses at two spatial scales were then correlated with the monitored multidimensional characteristics of the streams and rivers. The results of this study indicate that land use types have significant effects on stream and river characteristics. Specifically, most characteristics were negatively correlated with the proportions of urban, rice paddy, agricultural, and bare soil areas and positively correlated with the amount of forest. The site-scale and BWMR-scale analyses suggest that BWMR land use patterns were more strongly related to ecological integrity than they were to site land use patterns. Improving our understanding of land use effects will largely depend on relating the results of site-specific studies that use similar response techniques and measures to evaluate ecological integrity. In addition, our results clearly indicate that the characteristics of streams and rivers are closely linked and that land use types differentially affect those characteristics. Thus, effective restoration and management for ecological integrity of lotic system should consider the physical, chemical, and biological factors in combination.
Structural parameters of periphytic ciliate communities on a modified substrate were studied in Korean coastal waters during the period August–November 2007. In order to reduce the strong disturbances from tidal current and circulation in marine ecosystems, a modified slide method, named the polyurethane foam enveloped slide (PFES) system, was used to host ciliate communities. A total of 37 ciliate species, about half of which belong to the orders Hypotrichida and Cyrtophorida, were identified using living observation and silver impregnation method with this system. The sessile ciliates belonged to the orders Peritrichida and Suctorida, while the motile forms were represented primarily by the species of the orders Hypotrichida, Cyrtophorida and Pleurostomatida. The species diversity and evenness were significantly higher in the PFES system than those on the conventional slides (paired t-test: t = 2.384, 2.415; P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the ciliate communities from both sampling systems had similar species composition, but represented significant differences in species distribution and temporal dynamics mainly due to the most dominant peritrich Zoothaminium duplicatum, which overly colonized the conventional slides. Results suggest that the PFES system is more effective than the conventional slide method for periphytic ciliate colonization with high species diversity, evenness and sensitive temporal dynamics mainly due to the reduction of disturbances from tidal current and circulation in marine ecosystems.
This study aimed to explore the relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits, which are known as the psychological characteristics linked to “at-risk” populations for online game addiction.
A total of 1471 online game users (males 82.7%, females 17.3%, mean age 21.30 ± 4.96) participated in this study and were asked to complete several self-report measures using an online response method. Questionnaires included demographic information and game use-related characteristics of the samples, the online game addiction scale (modified from Young's Internet addiction scale), the Buss–Perry aggression questionnaire, a self-control scale, and the narcissistic personality disorder scale.
Our results indicated that aggression and narcissistic personality traits are positively correlated with online game addiction, whereas self-control is negatively correlated with online game addiction (p < 0.001). In addition, a multiple regression analysis revealed that the extent of online game addiction could be predicted based on the person's narcissistic personality traits, aggression, self-control, interpersonal relationship, and occupation. However, only 20% of the variance in behavioral consequences was explained with the model.
An interesting profile has emerged from the results of this study, suggesting that certain psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits may predispose some individuals to become addicted to online games. This result will deepen our understanding of the “at-risk” population for online game addiction and provide basic information that can contribute to developing a prevention program for people who are addicted to online games.
We have studied infrared photoluminescence (PL) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of 400 nm and 1500 nm thick InAs epilayers on GaAs, and 4 nm thick InAs on graded InGaAs layer with total thickness of 300 nm grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL peak positions of 400 nm, 1500 nm and 4 nm InAs epilayer measured at 10 K are blue-shifted from that of InAs bulk by 6.5, 4.5, and 6 meV, respectively, which can be largely explained by the residual strain in the epilayer. The residual strain caused by the lattice mismatch between InAs and GaAs or graded InGaAs/GaAs was observed from XRD measurements. While the PL peak position of 400 nm thick InAs layer is linearly shifted toward higher energy with increase in excitation intensity ranging from 10 to 140 mW, those of 4 nm InAs epilayer on InGaAs and 1500 nm InAs layer on GaAs is gradually blue-shifted and then, saturated above a power of 75 mW. These results suggest that adopting a graded InGaAs layer between InAs and GaAs can efficiently reduce the strain due to lattice mismatch in the structure of InAs/GaAs.
Nanocrystalline ITO powders have been prepared by a hydroxide coprecipitation method. Through the variation of aging time after precipitation, we have characterized the size, morphology and the structure of the precipitates. It was found that the precipitates are in the state of InOOH at first. Further aging up to 48 h changed it to In(OH)3 structure. After calcinations of the precipitates, rhombohedral nanocrystalline ITO powder with spherical shape was produced from InOOH structured precipitates, while cubic nanocrystalline ITO powder was produced from In(OH)3. Fraction of the rhombohedral ITO powder decreased as the aging time increased. The particle size of the cubic ITO increased with aging time but that of rhombohedral ITO (∼15 nm) was almost invariant.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.