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Resistance to beta-lactam antimicrobials caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms is a global health concern. The objectives of this study were to (1) summarise the prevalence of potential ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) and Salmonella spp. (ESBL-SA) isolates from agrifood and human sources in Canada from 2012 to 2017, and (2) describe the distribution of ESBL genotypes among these isolates. All data were obtained from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). CIPARS analysed samples for the presence of ESBLs through phenotypic classification and identified beta-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX, blaOXA, blaCMY−2) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). The prevalence of PCR-confirmed ESBL-EC in agrifood samples ranged from 0.5% to 3% across the surveillance years, and was detected most frequently in samples from broiler chicken farms. The overall prevalence of PCR-confirmed ESBL-SA varied between 1% and 4% between 2012 and 2017, and was most frequently detected in clinical isolates from domestic cattle. The TEM-CMY2 gene combination was the most frequently detected genotype for both ESBL-EC and ESBL-SA. The data suggest that the prevalence of ESBL-EC and ESBL-SA in Canada was low (i.e. <5%), but ongoing surveillance is needed to detect emerging or changing trends.
We present the Widefield ASKAP L-band Legacy All-sky Blind surveY (WALLABY) Pilot Phase I Hi kinematic models. This first data release consists of Hi observations of three fields in the direction of the Hydra and Norma clusters, and the NGC 4636 galaxy group. In this paper, we describe how we generate and publicly release flat-disk tilted-ring kinematic models for 109/592 unique Hi detections in these fields. The modelling method adopted here—which we call the WALLABY Kinematic Analysis Proto-Pipeline (WKAPP) and for which the corresponding scripts are also publicly available—consists of combining results from the homogeneous application of the FAT and 3DBarolo algorithms to the subset of 209 detections with sufficient resolution and
in order to generate optimised model parameters and uncertainties. The 109 models presented here tend to be gas rich detections resolved by at least 3–4 synthesised beams across their major axes, but there is no obvious environmental bias in the modelling. The data release described here is the first step towards the derivation of similar products for thousands of spatially resolved WALLABY detections via a dedicated kinematic pipeline. Such a large publicly available and homogeneously analysed dataset will be a powerful legacy product that that will enable a wide range of scientific studies.
Taking conflicts over new solar energy projects on the agricultural landscape in the global North as its backdrop, the chapter demonstrates how work and labour (including that performed in the North by workers from the global South) are erased both by the opponents and the proponents of such projects. The erasure is consistent with prevailing ways of knowing the human-environment nexus, shaped by an underlying political economy derivative of how international law has constructed and maintained the foundational liberal mythology that separates labour from land. Grounded in our commitment to pursuing a ‘just transition’ to decarbonisation – that is to say, a transition that attends to the distributional effects and disproportionate impacts of decarbonisation on workers and communities – we strive to reconceptualise work and labour as embodied practices of working and living on the land. Everyday socio-spatial practices structured by law implicate ordinary people in the making of landscapes and continuing relations of settler capitalism, shaping how ‘we’ live together on the land, including who belongs and who gets to decide.
There has been increasing recognition that healthy cultures within NHS organisations are key to delivering high-quality, safe care (King's Fund). A focus towards developing systems which recognise and learn from excellence has been shown to improve services’ safety and contribute to staff's morale (Kelly et al. 2016). In 2019 Secure Services at Devon Partnership NHS Trust (DPT) developed an Excellence reporting system. Once successfully piloted, the intention was to extend to other departments before expanding to the entire Trust. Our aims initially were SMART: for 13 reports per week in Secure services and 8 in Perinatal (a smaller team). As we expanded the aim became qualitative: for a system to be embedded so staff could as readily and instinctively report Excellence as they could an error.
We developed our Theory of Change using Deming's theory of profound knowledge, ran a series of PDSAs, and introduced an Excellence system. We engaged early adopters, sent hand-written cards and shared data widely.
Learning included understanding setting up the system, and the importance of a team rather than an individual holding the system. We took this forward to bring the system to Perinatal. We continued to run PDSAs, then ran monthly trust-wide meetings providing space to learn from other directorates.
Staff were initially excited, reports submitted, feedback good, then a plateau and slump.
Something was stopping the system perpetuating. When staff received timely thanks, and others heard about it, staff would go on to promote excellence. However, this was not possible without sufficient admin resources.
In early 2021 we changed tact and approached the top: we presented data to Directors who recognised the value and agreed to support. We then set about publicising the system, and demonstrating at trust-wide meetings.
By July 2021 we saw 10 reports per week in the Specialist Directorate.
By early 2022 reports were being inputted from staff across all directorates and our monthly meetings began to focus on sharing the learning.
We recognised the system's potential impact on safety and staff morale but struggled to sustain the system and support dwindled when staff were stretched.
After approaching leaders, then allocated resources, it allowed for more success. However, it is not yet fully embedded in our Trust's culture.
A lot of our work happened during COVID-19 and despite challenges there has been a new-found flexibility to innovate, greater ease to negotiate, and instigate change.
Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression that predicts worse treatment outcomes. Dysfunction in neural reward circuits is thought to contribute to anhedonia. However, whether laboratory-based assessments of anhedonia and reward-related neural function translate to adolescents' subjective affective experiences in real-world contexts remains unclear.
We recruited a sample of adolescents (n = 82; ages 12–18; mean = 15.83) who varied in anhedonia and measured the relationships among clinician-rated and self-reported anhedonia, behaviorally assessed reward learning ability, neural response to monetary reward and loss (as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging), and repeated ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in daily life.
Anhedonia was associated with lower mean PA and higher mean NA across the 5-day EMA period. Anhedonia was not related to impaired behavioral reward learning, but low PA was associated with reduced nucleus accumbens response during reward anticipation and reduced medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) response during reward outcome. Greater mean NA was associated with increased mPFC response to loss outcome.
Traditional laboratory-based measures of anhedonia were associated with lower subjective PA and higher subjective NA in youths' daily lives. Lower subjective PA and higher subjective NA were associated with decreased reward-related striatal functioning. Higher NA was also related to increased mPFC activity to loss. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that laboratory-based measures of anhedonia translate to real-world contexts and that subjective ratings of PA and NA may be associated with neural response to reward and loss.
Metabolites produced by microbial fermentation in the human intestine, especially short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), are known to play important roles in colonic and systemic health. Our aim here was to advance our understanding of how and why their concentrations and proportions vary between individuals. We have analysed faecal concentrations of microbial fermentation acids from 10 human volunteer studies, involving 163 subjects, conducted at the Rowett Institute, Aberdeen, UK over a 7-year period. In baseline samples, the % butyrate was significantly higher, whilst % iso-butyrate and % iso-valerate were significantly lower, with increasing total SCFA concentration. The decreasing proportions of iso-butyrate and iso-valerate, derived from amino acid fermentation, suggest that fibre intake was mainly responsible for increased SCFA concentrations. We propose that the increase in % butyrate among faecal SCFA is largely driven by a decrease in colonic pH resulting from higher SCFA concentrations. Consistent with this, both total SCFA and % butyrate increased significantly with decreasing pH across five studies for which faecal pH measurements were available. Colonic pH influences butyrate production through altering the stoichiometry of butyrate formation by butyrate-producing species, resulting in increased acetate uptake and butyrate formation, and facilitating increased relative abundance of butyrate-producing species (notably Roseburia and Eubacterium rectale).
AMONG THE surviving versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Peterborough Chronicle holds the distinction of being the latest maintained manuscript, with annals running up to 1154. The Peterborough Chronicle was first compiled in or somewhere around 1121, perhaps to replace an earlier manuscript that had been destroyed in the fire that devastated the monastery in 1116. The first scribe entered annals up to 1121, working from a lost exemplar of the northern recension, to which he added content that pertained specifically to the local history of his institution. These additions, commonly known as the Peterborough Interpolations, appear in some twenty annals, for years from the seventh century and into the twelfth. The same scribe added new annals up to 1131, a section now known as the First Continuation, and a second scribe later entered a block of annals that runs from 1132 to 1154, which is now known as the Second Continuation.
The two continuations have generally attracted the most scholarly attention, but this essay focuses on the earlier interpolations as part of an effort to build a local archive that promoted the ancient status of the monastery and protected its current proprietary rights and privileges. To achieve this goal, the Peterborough monks constructed over time an archive that consisted of multiple documentary modes, including the anonymous vernacular chronicle, the Latin chronicle of Hugh Candidus, several cartularies, and several single-sheet charter copies. Moreover, this archival network was in part constructed around a small group of twelfth-century forgeries that memorialized claims and privileges from the institution's early past. As one part of this project, the Peterborough Chronicle strategically incorporates material from those generative texts that provided a locus for broader compilation and elaboration.
The interpolations in the Peterborough Chronicle are most often incorporated into pre-existing material, but occasionally they constitute an entirely new annal, and many of the interpolations include vernacular summaries or translations of Latin documents, especially charters. Susan Irvine has observed that ‘the compilation has been designed to ensure that the Interpolations are as unobtrusive as possible’, with the compiler working ‘to smuggle Peterborough's records into the narrative so that they become seamlessly part of an authoritative account of English history’.
To determine the incidence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare personnel (HCP) and to assess occupational risks for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Prospective cohort of healthcare personnel (HCP) followed for 6 months from May through December 2020.
Large academic healthcare system including 4 hospitals and affiliated clinics in Atlanta, Georgia.
HCP, including those with and without direct patient-care activities, working during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Incident SARS-CoV-2 infections were determined through serologic testing for SARS-CoV-2 IgG at enrollment, at 3 months, and at 6 months. HCP completed monthly surveys regarding occupational activities. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify occupational factors that increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Of the 304 evaluable HCP that were seronegative at enrollment, 26 (9%) seroconverted for SARS-CoV-2 IgG by 6 months. Overall, 219 participants (73%) self-identified as White race, 119 (40%) were nurses, and 121 (40%) worked on inpatient medical-surgical floors. In a multivariable analysis, HCP who identified as Black race were more likely to seroconvert than HCP who identified as White (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–14.2). Increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection was not identified for any occupational activity, including spending >50% of a typical shift at a patient’s bedside, working in a COVID-19 unit, or performing or being present for aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs).
In our study cohort of HCP working in an academic healthcare system, <10% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection over 6 months. No specific occupational activities were identified as increasing risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Traditional accounts of state expansion and of the rise of state schooling in the nineteenth century emphasize economic, political, and social development as well as conflict and domination. These accounts explain the introduction of new state structures, like ministries of education, rules of compulsion, and the general elaboration of bureaucracies. This article contributes to the historical sociological study of state expansion with specific regard to schooling by refocusing on the role that macrocultural processes of social scientization played in shaping the discursive construction and expansion of the state. Designed to analyze the 1.3 million speeches given in the UK parliament during the nineteenth century, the research reported here supports the argument that the development, professionalization, and institutionalization of the social sciences—social scientization—was a powerful force of cultural construction across the West and was positively associated with expanded notions of the state, as evidenced with the case of the United Kingdom. This article therefore not only provides an important alternative view to those who emphasize economic and social transformation but it also advances the empirical study of the powerful role that social science, as generative institution of cultural construction, played in shaping official discourses of the state—in this instance, the schooling state.
Excess sleep is associated with higher risk of stroke, but whether the risk is modified by age and if it remains elevated after accounting for the competing risk of death is not well understood.
We used nine years of the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2000 to 2016 to obtain self-reported sleep duration and created a cohort of individuals without prior stroke, heart disease, or cancer. We linked to hospital records to determine subsequent admissions or emergency department visits for acute stroke until December 31, 2017. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the association between sleep duration and risk of stroke, assessing for modification by age and sex and adjusting for demographic, vascular, and social factors. We obtained cumulative incidence of stroke accounting for the competing risk of death.
There were 82,795 individuals in our cohort who met inclusion criteria and had self-reported sleep duration, with 1705 stroke events in follow-up. There was an association between excess sleep (≥10 h/night) and risk of stroke in those <70 years (fully adjusted hazard ratio 2.29, 95% CI 1.04–5.06), but not ≥70 years of age, with a similar association after accounting for the competing risk of death.
Sleep duration ≥10 h/night is associated with increased risk of stroke in those <70 years of age. The findings support current guidelines for 7–9 h of sleep per night. Further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between sleep and cerebrovascular disease.
As the US faced its lowest levels of reported trust in government, the COVID-19 crisis revealed the essential service that various federal agencies provide as sources of information. This Element explores variations in trust across various levels of government and government agencies based on a nationally-representative survey conducted in March of 2020. First, it examines trust in agencies including the Department of Health and Human Services, state health departments, and local health care providers. This includes variation across key characteristics including party identification, age, and race. Second, the Element explores the evolution of trust in health-related organizations throughout 2020 as the pandemic continued. The Element concludes with a discussion of the implications for agency-specific assessments of trust and their importance as we address historically low levels of trust in government. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The discovery of wake bistability has generated an upsurge in experimental investigations into the wakes of simplified vehicle geometries. Particular focus has centred on the probabilistic switching between two asymmetrical bistable wake states of a square-back Ahmed body; however, the majority of this research has been undertaken in wind tunnels with turbulence intensities of less than $1\,\%$, considerably lower than typical atmospheric levels. To better simulate bistability under on-road conditions, in which turbulence intensities can easily reach levels of $10\,\%$ or more, this experimental study investigates the effects of free-stream turbulence on the bistability characteristics of the square-back Ahmed body. Through passive generation and quantification of the free-stream turbulent conditions, a monotonic correlation was found between the switching rate and free-stream turbulence intensity.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
People with psychosis experience cardiometabolic comorbidities, including metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease and diabetes. These physical comorbidities have been linked to diet, inactivity and the effects of the illness itself, including disorganisation, impairments in global function and amotivation associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia or co-morbid depression.
We aimed to describe the dietary intake, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour patterns of a sample of patients with established psychosis participating in the Improving Physical Health and Reducing Substance Use in Severe Mental Illness (IMPaCT) randomised controlled trial, and to explore the relationship between these lifestyle factors and mental health symptomatology.
A majority of participants had poor dietary quality, low in fruit and vegetables and high in discretionary foods. Only 29.3% completed ⩾150 min of moderate and/or vigorous activity per week and 72.2% spent ⩾6 h per day sitting. Cross-sectional associations between negative symptoms, global function, and PA and sedentary behaviour were observed. Additionally, those with more negative symptoms receiving IMPaCT therapy had fewer positive changes in PA from baseline to 12-month follow-up than those with fewer negative symptoms at baseline.
These results highlight the need for the development of multidisciplinary lifestyle and exercise interventions to target eating habits, PA and sedentary behaviour, and the need for further research on how to adapt lifestyle interventions to baseline mental status. Negative symptoms in particular may reduce patient's responses to lifestyle interventions.
In the UK, acute mental healthcare is provided by in-patient wards and crisis resolution teams. Readmission to acute care following discharge is common. Acute day units (ADUs) are also provided in some areas.
To assess predictors of readmission to acute mental healthcare following discharge in England, including availability of ADUs.
We enrolled a national cohort of adults discharged from acute mental healthcare in the English National Health Service (NHS) between 2013 and 2015, determined the risk of readmission to either in-patient or crisis teams, and used multivariable, multilevel logistic models to evaluate predictors of readmission.
Of a total of 231 998 eligible individuals discharged from acute mental healthcare, 49 547 (21.4%) were readmitted within 6 months, with a median time to readmission of 34 days (interquartile range 10–88 days). Most variation in readmission (98%) was attributable to individual patient-level rather than provider (trust)-level effects (2.0%). Risk of readmission was not associated with local availability of ADUs (adjusted odds ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.80–1.15). Statistically significant elevated risks were identified for participants who were female, older, single, from Black or mixed ethnic groups, or from more deprived areas. Clinical predictors included shorter index admission, psychosis and being an in-patient at baseline.
Relapse and readmission to acute mental healthcare are common following discharge and occur early. Readmission was not influenced significantly by trust-level variables including availability of ADUs. More support for relapse prevention and symptom management may be required following discharge from acute mental healthcare.
In total, 13 facilities changed C. difficile testing to reflexive testing by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) only after a positive nucleic acid-amplification test (NAAT); the standardized infection ratio (SIR) decreased by 46% (range, −12% to −71% per hospital). Changing testing practice greatly influenced a performance metric without changing C. difficile infection prevention practice.
Health utility instruments are increasingly being used to measure impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stroke. Population-based studies of HRQoL after stroke and assessment of differences by age and functional domain are needed.
We used the Canadian Community Health Survey linked with administrative databases to determine HRQoL using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) among those with prior hospitalization or emergency department visit for stroke and compared to controls without stroke. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the difference in HUI3 between those with stroke and controls for the global index and individual attributes, with assessment for modification by age (<60, 60–74, and 75+ years) and sex, and we combined estimates across survey years using random effects meta-analysis.
Our cohort contained 1240 stroke survivors and 123,765 controls and was weighted to be representative of the Canadian household population. Mean health utility was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58, 0.68) for those with stroke and 0.83 (95% CI 0.82, 0.84) for controls. There was significant modification by age, but not sex, with the greatest adjusted reduction in HUI3 among stroke respondents aged 60–74 years. Individual HUI3 attributes with the largest reductions in utility among stroke survivors compared to controls were mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain.
In this population-based study, the reduction in HUI3 among stroke survivors compared to controls was greatest among respondents aged 60–74, and in attributes of mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain. These results highlight the persistent impairment of HRQoL in the chronic phase of stroke and potential targets for community support.