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Cognitive and functional impairment after stroke are common, but the relation between cognitive and functional decline after stroke is not well studied.
We used the comprehensive cohort in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging to identify those with prior stroke, and we calculated reliable cognitive change scores from baseline to follow-up for the memory and executive domains. Functional decline was defined as an increase in the number of dependent daily activities. Using formal mediation analysis, we tested the presence and degree of mediation of the association between stroke and functional decline by cognitive decline.
There were 22,648 individuals with memory change scores (325 with stroke) and 17,613 individuals with executive change scores (241 with stroke). History of stroke was significantly associated with memory decline (−0.26 standard deviations, 95% CI −0.33 to −0.19), executive decline (−0.22, 95% CI −0.36 to −0.09), and new functional impairment (adjusted odds ratio 2.31, 95% CI 1.80–2.97) over a median of 3-year follow-up. Cognitive decline was a significant mediator of functional decline. Memory decline mediated only 5% of the relationship, whereas executive and overall cognitive decline mediated 13% and 22%, respectively.
Cognitive decline is a mediator of the association between prior stroke and functional decline; consequently, strategies to delay, attenuate, or prevent cognitive decline after stroke may be important to preserving long-term functional status.
Excess sleep is associated with higher risk of stroke, but whether the risk is modified by age and if it remains elevated after accounting for the competing risk of death is not well understood.
We used nine years of the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2000 to 2016 to obtain self-reported sleep duration and created a cohort of individuals without prior stroke, heart disease, or cancer. We linked to hospital records to determine subsequent admissions or emergency department visits for acute stroke until December 31, 2017. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the association between sleep duration and risk of stroke, assessing for modification by age and sex and adjusting for demographic, vascular, and social factors. We obtained cumulative incidence of stroke accounting for the competing risk of death.
There were 82,795 individuals in our cohort who met inclusion criteria and had self-reported sleep duration, with 1705 stroke events in follow-up. There was an association between excess sleep (≥10 h/night) and risk of stroke in those <70 years (fully adjusted hazard ratio 2.29, 95% CI 1.04–5.06), but not ≥70 years of age, with a similar association after accounting for the competing risk of death.
Sleep duration ≥10 h/night is associated with increased risk of stroke in those <70 years of age. The findings support current guidelines for 7–9 h of sleep per night. Further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between sleep and cerebrovascular disease.
Health utility instruments are increasingly being used to measure impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stroke. Population-based studies of HRQoL after stroke and assessment of differences by age and functional domain are needed.
We used the Canadian Community Health Survey linked with administrative databases to determine HRQoL using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) among those with prior hospitalization or emergency department visit for stroke and compared to controls without stroke. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the difference in HUI3 between those with stroke and controls for the global index and individual attributes, with assessment for modification by age (<60, 60–74, and 75+ years) and sex, and we combined estimates across survey years using random effects meta-analysis.
Our cohort contained 1240 stroke survivors and 123,765 controls and was weighted to be representative of the Canadian household population. Mean health utility was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58, 0.68) for those with stroke and 0.83 (95% CI 0.82, 0.84) for controls. There was significant modification by age, but not sex, with the greatest adjusted reduction in HUI3 among stroke respondents aged 60–74 years. Individual HUI3 attributes with the largest reductions in utility among stroke survivors compared to controls were mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain.
In this population-based study, the reduction in HUI3 among stroke survivors compared to controls was greatest among respondents aged 60–74, and in attributes of mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain. These results highlight the persistent impairment of HRQoL in the chronic phase of stroke and potential targets for community support.
Multivariable risk algorithms (MVRP) predicting the personal risk of depression will form an important component of personalized preventive interventions. However, it is unknown whether providing personalized depression risk will lead to unintended psychological harms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of providing personalized depression risk on non-specific psychological distress and functional impairment over 12 months.
A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial was conducted in 358 males and 354 females who were at high risk of having a major depressive episode according to sex-specific MVRPs, and who were randomly recruited across Canada. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months.
Over 93% of participants were interested in knowing their depression risk. The intervention group had a greater reduction in K10 score over 12 months than the control group; complete-case analysis found a significant between-group difference in mean K10 change score (d = 1.17, 95% CI 0.12–2.23) at 12 months. Participants in the intervention group also reported significantly less functional impairment in the domains of home and work/school activities, than did those in the control group. A majority of the qualitative interviewees commented that personalized depression risk information does not have a negative impact on physical and mental health.
This study found no evidence that providing personalized depression risk information will lead to worsening psychological distress, functional impairment, and absenteeism. Provision of personalized depression risk information may have positive impacts on non-specific psychological distress and functioning.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Objective: To develop a detailed profile of individuals living with migraine in Canada. Such a profile is important for planning and administration of services. Methods: The 2011–2012 Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada (SLNCC), a cross-sectional community-based survey, was used to examine a representative sample of migraineurs (N = 949) aged 15 years and older. Several health-related variables were examined (e.g., general health, health utility index (HUI) [a measure of health status and health-related quality of life, where dead = 0.00 and perfect health = 1.00], stigma, depression, and social support). Respondents were further stratified by sex, age, and age of migraine onset. Weighted overall and stratified prevalence estimates and odds ratios, both with 95% CIs, were used to estimate associations. Results: Overall, males had poorer health status compared with females (e.g., mean HUI was 0.67 in males vs. 0.82 in females; men had over two times the odds of their migraine limiting educational and job opportunities compared with females). Poorer health-related variables were seen in the older age groups (35–64 years/≥65 years) compared with the 15–34-year age group. There were no differences between those whose migraine symptoms began before versus after the age of 20 years. Conclusions: In this Canadian sample, migraine was associated with worse health-related variables in men compared with women. However, both men and women were significantly affected by migraine across various health-related variables. Thus, it is important to improve clinical and public health interventions addressing the impact of migraine across individuals of all ages, sexes, and sociodemographic backgrounds.
Use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) has increased in recent years; however, their use and effect on metabolic outcomes has been poorly characterised in population-level studies.
This study aimed to determine the associations between SGA use and metabolic indicators in a general population.
We used data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Canadian households. Participants were Canadians aged 3–79 years, living in one of the ten provinces. Several metabolic indicators were examined, including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, diabetes and two definitions of metabolic syndrome.
The proportion of Canadians taking an SGA tripled over the study period. SGA use was significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.07–3.55) and abdominal obesity in adults, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III (odds ratio 2.62, 95% CI 1.45–4.71).
Evidence of metabolic dysfunction with SGAs is seen in the Canadian population, along with a rapid increase in prevalence of use since 2007.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Our primary objective was to understand the barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of high-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression and anxiety in patients with dementia or Parkinson’s disease (PD). We conducted focus groups or interviews with participants experiencing dementia or PD, their caregivers, and physicians in Calgary, Alberta, and applied the theoretical domains framework and behaviour change wheel to guide data collection and perform a framework analysis. Thirty-three physicians and seven PD patients/caregivers participated. We report barriers and facilitators to the implementation of guideline recommendations for diagnosis, management, and the use of the guidelines. An overarching theme was the lack of evidence for depression or anxiety disorders in dementia or PD, which was prominent for anxiety versus depression. Patients noted difficulties with communicating symptoms and accessing services. Although guidelines are available, physicians have difficulty implementing certain recommendations due primarily to a lack of evidence regarding efficacy.
Background: This study is part of the Innovations in Data, Evidence and Applications for Persons with Neurological Conditions project to understand the strengths, preferences, and needs of persons with neurological conditions living in Canada. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of persons with multiple sclerosis in Canadian home care, nursing home, Complex Continuing Care hospitals, and inpatient mental health care settings. Methods: Cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years and older with multiple sclerosis (MS; n=11,250) across Canada from 1996 through 2011 using interRAI Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) comprehensive health assessments (RAI Minimum Data Set 2.0, RAI-Home Care, RAI-Mental Health). Comparisons were made to adults with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (n=260,910), other neurological conditions (n=163,578) and non-neurological conditions (n=571,567). Results: The prevalence of MS was highest in Complex Continuing Care hospitals (4125 cases per 100,000 patients), followed by home care (2020 cases per 100,000 patients), nursing homes (1424 cases per 100,000 patients), and mental health settings (138 cases per 100,000 patients). Persons with MS experienced greater impairment in the completion of activities of daily living, pain, pressure ulcers, swallowing difficulty, depression, and anxiety compared with peers within care settings. There were also significant differences between settings, particularly the degree of physical and cognitive impairment experienced by persons with MS. Conclusions: Except for mental health care settings, the prevalence of MS in community, institutional and hospital-based care settings exceeded that of the general population. These data describing the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of persons with MS may be used to inform clinical practice and policy decisions for persons with MS across the continuum of care.
Community-based studies can describe health status and related variables in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) while avoiding biases introduced by help-seeking in specific clinical settings.
To describe general health status, stress perceptions and life satisfaction in people with MS, in comparison to those with other types of disabilities.
Materials & Methods:
The Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) was a post-censual survey conducted by Statistics Canada in association with the 2006 Canadian Census. PALS collected data from a random sample of n = 22,513 respondents identified as having health-related impairments. Frequencies and quartiles as well as mean values, along with associated 95% confidence intervals, were calculated in the analysis.
PALS identified 245 individuals with MS. Health status, both perceived and when weighted for societal preference, was markedly lower than that of other disabled groups. No differences in self-perceived stress were seen. People with MS reported lower levels of satisfaction with their health but slightly higher levels of satisfaction with their family and friends.
People with MS report lower levels of general health status and more impairment than those with other disabling conditions. Higher levels of satisfaction with friends and family may reflect psychological adaptation to the illness.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is reported to be uncommon among North American aboriginals despite frequent intermarriage with people of European ancestry, but few population-based studies have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS among First Nations aboriginal people in Alberta, Canada compared to the general population.
All hospital in-patient and physician fee-for-service records between 1994 and 2002 where a diagnosis of MS was mentioned were extracted from government health databases in the province of Alberta. First Nations people can be identified since the federal government (Health Canada) pays health care insurance premiums on their behalf. Multiple Sclerosis prevalence per 100,000 population for both First Nations people and the general population of Alberta were calculated for each year during this time span.
Among First Nations in Alberta, MS prevalence was 56.3 per 100,000 in 1994 and 99.9 per 100,000 in 2002, an increase of 43.6%. In 2002 prevalence was 158.1 and 38.0 for females and males respectively, a female to male ratio of 4.2:1. Multiple Sclerosis prevalence among the general population of Alberta was 262.6 per 100,000 in 1994 and 335.0 per 100,000 in 2002, an increase of 21.6%. In 2002 prevalence was 481.5 and 187.5 for females and males respectively, a female to male ratio of 2.6:1. Peak prevalence for both First Nations and general population females in 2002 was age 50-59, also 50-59 for both First Nations and general population males.
While MS prevalence in First Nations people is lower than in the general population of Alberta, it is not rare by worldwide standards.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease with purported environmental causes. Consistent correlations have been found in various settings for latitude, smoking exposure, sunlight, and vitamin D deficiency. We analysed the contribution of various environmental factors to the risk of developing MS from a population perspective.
We collated global data of MS prevalence from 54 studies over the previous ten years and calculated the degree of risk contributed by latitude, longitude, ultraviolet radiation (from NASA satellite data and formulae for available sunlight hours), population smoking rates (from WHO data), gender, study date, study demographics, and several socioeconomic factors. We report a very significant negative correlation between MS prevalence and available ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
The lack of available UV radiation outweighs other factors by at least 20 fold (p<10∧-8) from single variate regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis revealed that latitude and longitude are also significant factors; smoking may also provide a very minimal role. The eight prevalence studies from Scandinavia produced prevalences that were lower than expected, given their global geospatial positioning.
The available ultraviolet radiation is a significant environmental factor, moreso than all the other factors examined.
Medical and mental health comorbidity in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias presents difficult challenges for health service delivery. However, existing studies have been conducted in clinical samples and may not be informative for planning community services. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) provides an opportunity to characterize associations between dementias and mental and physical comorbidity in a household population aged 55 and over.
Data were obtained from the 2005 CCHS-cycle 3.1. Weighted estimates for mood and anxiety disorders and other characteristics in Canadian population with dementia were calculated and were compared to those in people without the condition.
According to the CCHS, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementia increases with age, more or less doubling every decade. The increase among women is monotonic, whereas among men in the household population the rate of dementia peaks at age 85-89 and falls thereafter. Mood and anxiety disorders were found to be substantially more frequent among people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia compared to those without the disease (mood disorders: 19.5% vs. 5.3% and anxiety disorders: 16.3% vs. 4.0%). Heart disease, stroke and obesity were associated with dementia as was a lower level of education. Furthermore, people with dementia were more likely than those without the disease to report activity restrictions.
The high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in household population with Alzheimer's disease and other dementia demonstrates the burden of disease that is likely to worsen quality of life over time.
Background: Affective disorders present an important clinical challenge in multiple sclerosis (MS). Due to prohibitive sample size requirements, population-based studies have not yet provided an adequate description of the underlying epidemiology of this association.
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of affective disorders in MS in a general population sample.
Methods: The study presented here accessed administrative data from a universal healthcare insurance plan in the Canadian province of Alberta. Physician billing data recorded in the Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan was used to identify members of the population ≥15 years of age with and without MS. Crude and stratified estimates of the association between affective disorders and MS were made. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate statistical interactions and to provide adjusted estimates of the association.
Results: The estimated prevalence of MS in the population within the targeted age range (2.3 million individuals) was 386/100,000 and that of affective disorders was 7.7%. As expected, an association between MS and affective disorders was identified (crude relative prevalence: 2.2). The association varied in strength over age-sex categories. Although the prevalence of affective disorder was higher in women with MS than men with MS, the association of MS with affective disorders was stronger in men. The strength of association declined with age in both men and women. Affective disorder prevalence in people with MS becomes similar to that of the general population in older age groups.
Conclusion: Affective disorders occur with an increased frequency in MS. This is true in men and women and across all relevant age groups, although the association gets weaker with advancing age. Higher frequencies of affective disorder occur in women with MS than in men with MS. The frequency of affective disorder in people with MS is highest in the 25–44 age group, and declines in older age categories.
Geriatric psychiatry hospital beds are a limited resource. Our aim was to determine predictors of hospital length of stay (LOS) for geriatric patients with dementia admitted to inpatient psychiatric beds.
Admission and discharge data from a large urban mental health center, from 2005 to 2010 inclusive, were retrospectively analyzed. Using the resident assessment instrument - mental health (RAI-MH), an assessment that is used to collect demographic and clinical information within 72 hours of hospital admission, 169 geriatric patients with dementia were compared with 308 geriatric patients without dementia. Predictors of hospital LOS were determined using a series of general linear models.
A diagnosis of dementia did not predict a longer LOS in this geriatric psychiatry inpatient population. The presence of multiple medical co-morbidities had an inverse relationship to length of hospital LOS – a greater number of co-morbidities predicted a shorter hospital LOS in the group of geriatric patients who had dementia compared to the without dementia study group. The presence of incapacity and positive psychotic symptoms predicted longer hospital LOS, irrespective of admission group (patients with dementia compared with those without). Conversely, pain on admission predicted shorter hospital LOS.
Specific clinical characteristics generally determined at the time of admission are predictive of hospital LOS in geriatric psychiatry inpatients. Addressing these factors early on during admission and in the community may result in shorter hospital LOS and more optimal use of resources.